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      Endothelium-Specific GTP Cyclohydrolase I Overexpression Restores Endothelial Function in Aged Mice

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          Abstract

          This study tested the hypothesis that endothelium-specific GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I) overexpression (Tg-GCH) restores age-associated endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Aortic GTPCH I expression and serum nitric oxide (NO) release were measured in young and aged mice. Aortic rings from young and aged wild-type (WT) mice and aged Tg-GCH mice were suspended for isometric tension recording. A hind limb ischemia model was used to measure blood flow recovery. Aged mice showed reduced GTPCH I expression in the aorta and decreased NO levels in serum. Compared with aged WT mice, Tg-GCH significantly elevated NO levels in serum in aged Tg-GCH mice, restored the impaired aortic relaxation in response to acetylcholine, and significantly elevated aortic constriction in response to L-NAME. Importantly, aged Tg-GCH mice displayed a significant increase in blood flow recovery compared with aged WT mice. GTPCH I reduction contributes to aging-associated endothelial dysfunction, which can be retarded by Tg-GCH.

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          Most cited references20

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          Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function.

          Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known, is produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39). They all utilize l-arginine and molecular oxygen as substrates and require the cofactors reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)). All NOS bind calmodulin and contain haem. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, NOS I) is constitutively expressed in central and peripheral neurons and some other cell types. Its functions include synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS), central regulation of blood pressure, smooth muscle relaxation, and vasodilatation via peripheral nitrergic nerves. Nitrergic nerves are of particular importance in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum and penile erection. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) require at least a residual nNOS activity for their action. Inducible NOS (NOS II) can be expressed in many cell types in response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokines, or other agents. Inducible NOS generates large amounts of NO that have cytostatic effects on parasitic target cells. Inducible NOS contributes to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and septic shock. Endothelial NOS (eNOS, NOS III) is mostly expressed in endothelial cells. It keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other vasoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Many cardiovascular risk factors lead to oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction in the vasculature. Pharmacologically, vascular oxidative stress can be reduced and eNOS functionality restored with renin- and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, with angiotensin receptor blockers, and with statins.
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            Is Open Access

            Complexity of dopamine metabolism

            Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD.
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              Biochemistry of nitric oxide and its redox-activated forms

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2021
                March 2021
                08 February 2021
                : 58
                : 2
                : 134-138
                Affiliations
                Department of Health Toxicology, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                *Ji-kuai Chen or Jiang-bo Zhu, Department of Health Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Xiangyin Road 800, Shanghai 200433 (China), cjk.smmu@hotmail.com or jiangbozhu1@163.com
                Article
                513464 J Vasc Res 2021;58:134–138
                10.1159/000513464
                33556943
                ae02c511-129a-4747-88f7-b68be58eb860
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 18 June 2020
                : 26 November 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Rapid Communication

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Endothelial dysfunction,Aging,GTP cyclohydrolase I,Angiogenesis,Nitric oxide

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