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      Thrombospondin-1 Is a Major Activator of TGF-β1 In Vivo

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          Most cited references 47

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          Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease.

          Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.
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            Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction.

            A broad spectrum of biological activities has been proposed for transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3). To study TGF-beta 3 function in development, TGF-beta 3 null mutant mice were generated by gene-targeting. Within 20 hours of birth, homozygous TGF-beta 3-/- mice die with unique and consistent phenotypic features including delayed pulmonary development and defective palatogenesis. Unlike other null mutants with cleft palate, TGF-beta 3-/- mice lack other concomitant craniofacial abnormalities. This study demonstrates an essential function for TGF-beta 3 in the normal morphogenesis of palate and lung, and directly implicates this cytokine in mechanisms of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction.
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              Transforming growth factor-beta 3 is required for secondary palate fusion.

              Mice lacking TGF-beta 3 exhibit an incompletely penetrant failure of the palatal shelves to fuse leading to cleft palate. The defect appears to result from impaired adhesion of the apposing medial edge epithelia of the palatal shelves and subsequent elimination of the mid-line epithelial seam. No craniofacial abnormalities were observed. This result demonstrates that TGF-beta 3 affects palatal shelf fusion by an intrinsic, primary mechanism rather than by effects secondary to craniofacial defects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                June 1998
                June 1998
                : 93
                : 7
                : 1159-1170
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81460-9
                © 1998

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