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      Continual evolution of type 2 diabetes: an update on pathophysiology and emerging treatment options

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          Abstract

          Diabetes is a complex and progressive disease that has a major societal and economic impact. The most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a multifactorial disease, the pathophysiology of which involves not only the pancreas but also the liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and kidney. Novel therapies with mechanisms of action that are different from most existing drugs are emerging. One such class consists of compounds that inhibit renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, which is responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption by the kidneys. This new class of compounds improves glycemic control independently of insulin and promotes weight reduction, providing an additional tool to treat patients with T2DM. This review discusses the underlying pathophysiology of T2DM, clinical guidelines, and available and emerging treatment options, with particular emphasis on sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

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          Most cited references 84

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          Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans.

          Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. Recent studies using PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) have shown the presence of BAT in adult humans. However, whether BAT contributes to cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis in humans has not been proven. Using PET with 11C-acetate, 18FDG, and 18F-fluoro-thiaheptadecanoic acid (18FTHA), a fatty acid tracer, we have quantified BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) turnover in 6 healthy men under controlled cold exposure conditions. All subjects displayed substantial NEFA and glucose uptake upon cold exposure. Furthermore, we demonstrated cold-induced activation of oxidative metabolism in BAT, but not in adjoining skeletal muscles and subcutaneous adipose tissue. This activation was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure. We found an inverse relationship between BAT activity and shivering. We also observed an increase in BAT radio density upon cold exposure, indicating reduced BAT triglyceride content. In sum, our study provides evidence that BAT acts as a nonshivering thermogenesis effector in humans.
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            Effects of dapagliflozin on body weight, total fat mass, and regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on metformin.

            Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and weight loss is a consistent associated finding. Our objectives were to confirm weight loss with dapagliflozin and establish through body composition measurements whether weight loss is accounted for by changes in fat or fluid components. This was a 24-wk, international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with ongoing 78-wk site- and patient-blinded extension period at 40 sites in five countries. Included were 182 patients with T2DM (mean values: women 63.3 and men 58.6 yr of age; hemoglobin A1c 7.17%, body mass index 31.9 kg/m2, and body weight 91.5 kg) inadequately controlled on metformin. Dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo was added to open-label metformin for 24 wk. Primary endpoint was total body weight (TBW) change from baseline at wk 24. Key secondary endpoints were waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total-body fat mass (FM) changes from baseline at wk 24, and patient proportion achieving body weight reduction of at least 5% at wk 24. In a subset of patients, magnetic resonance assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) volume and hepatic lipid content were also evaluated. At wk 24, placebo-corrected changes with dapagliflozin were as follows: TBW, -2.08 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.84 to -1.31; P<0.0001]; waist circumference, -1.52 cm (95% CI=-2.74 to -0.31; P=0.0143); FM, -1.48 kg (95% CI=-2.22 to -0.74; P=0.0001); proportion of patients achieving weight reduction of at least 5%, +26.2% (95% CI=15.5 to 36.7; P<0.0001); VAT, -258.4 cm3 (95% CI=-448.1 to -68.6; nominal P=0.0084); SAT, -184.9 cm3 (95% CI=-359.7 to -10.1; nominal P=0.0385). In the dapagliflozin vs. placebo groups, respectively, serious adverse events were reported in 6.6 vs. 1.1%; events suggestive of vulvovaginitis, balanitis, and related genital infection in 3.3 vs. 0%; and lower urinary tract infections in 6.6 vs. 2.2%. Dapagliflozin reduces TBW, predominantly by reducing FM, VAT and SAT in T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin.
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              Insulin resistance differentially affects the PI 3-kinase- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling in human muscle.

              The broad nature of insulin resistant glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes suggests a defect in the proximal part of the insulin signaling network. We sought to identify the pathways compromised in insulin resistance and to test the effect of moderate exercise on whole-body and cellular insulin action. We conducted euglycemic clamps and muscle biopsies on type 2 diabetic patients, obese nondiabetics and lean controls, with and without a single bout of exercise. Insulin stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway, as measured by phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS-1 and by IRS protein association with p85 and with PI 3-kinase, was dramatically reduced in obese nondiabetics and virtually absent in type 2 diabetic patients. Insulin stimulation of the MAP kinase pathway was normal in obese and diabetic subjects. Insulin stimulation of glucose-disposal correlated with association of p85 with IRS-1. Exercise 24 hours before the euglycemic clamp increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor and IRS-1 in obese and diabetic subjects but did not increase glucose uptake or PI 3-kinase association with IRS-1 upon insulin stimulation. Thus, insulin resistance differentially affects the PI 3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways, and insulin-stimulated IRS-1-association with PI 3-kinase defines a key step in insulin resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                16 April 2015
                : 11
                : 621-632
                Affiliations
                Chicago College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Susan Cornell, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University, 555 31st Street, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA, Tel +1 630 515 6191, Fax +1 630 515 6103, Email SCORNE@ 123456midwestern.edu
                Article
                tcrm-11-621
                10.2147/TCRM.S67387
                4404882
                25931824
                © 2015 Cornell. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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