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      Distinct patterns of Internet and smartphone-related problems among adolescents by gender: Latent class analysis

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          Abstract

          Background and objectives

          The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA).

          Methods

          After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ 2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups.

          Results

          In the whole group ( n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and “healthy” users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females.

          Conclusions

          An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

          Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.
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            Brain Systems that Mediate both Emotion and Cognition

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              Prevalence, persistence, and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement.

              Community epidemiological data on the prevalence and correlates of adolescent mental disorders are needed for policy planning purposes. Only limited data of this sort are available. To present estimates of 12-month and 30-day prevalence, persistence (12-month prevalence among lifetime cases and 30-day prevalence among 12-month cases), and sociodemographic correlates of commonly occurring DSM-IV disorders among adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement is a US national survey of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders among US adolescents based on face-to-face interviews in the homes of respondents with supplemental parent questionnaires. Dual-frame household and school samples of US adolescents. A total of 10,148 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (interviews) and 1 parent of each adolescent (questionnaires). The DSM-IV disorders assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview and validated with blinded clinical interviews based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Good concordance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ≥0.80) was found between Composite International Diagnostic Interview and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children diagnoses. The prevalence estimates of any DSM-IV disorder are 40.3% at 12 months (79.5% of lifetime cases) and 23.4% at 30 days (57.9% of 12-month cases). Anxiety disorders are the most common class of disorders, followed by behavior, mood, and substance disorders. Although relative disorder prevalence is quite stable over time, 30-day to 12-month prevalence ratios are higher for anxiety and behavior disorders than mood or substance disorders, suggesting that the former are more chronic than the latter. The 30-day to 12-month prevalence ratios are generally lower than the 12-month to lifetime ratios, suggesting that disorder persistence is due more to episode recurrence than to chronicity. Sociodemographic correlates are largely consistent with previous studies. Among US adolescents, DSM-IV disorders are highly prevalent and persistent. Persistence is higher for adolescents than among adults and appears to be due more to recurrence than chronicity of child-adolescent onset disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                15 May 2018
                June 2018
                : 7
                : 2
                : 454-465
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ 2 ]Department of Statistics, Ewha Womans University , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ 3 ]Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ 4 ]I Will Center, Seoul Metropolitan Boramae Youth Center , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ 5 ]Department of Statistics, Seoul National University , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ 6 ]Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ 7 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, Seoul National University , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors: Jung-Seok Choi, MD, PhD; Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, 20, Boramae-ro 5-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 07061, Republic of Korea; Phone: +82 2870 3461; Fax: +82 2831 2826; E-mail: choijs73@ 123456gmail.com ; Yong-Sil Kweon, MD, PhD; Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, Republic of Korea; Phone: +82 31 820 3032; Fax: +82 31 847 3630; E-mail: yskwn@ 123456catholic.ac.kr
                Article
                10.1556/2006.7.2018.28
                6174601
                29788762
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funding sources: This study was supported by a grant of the Korean Mental Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (HM14C2603), and the National Research Foundation of Korea (2014M3C7A1062894).
                Categories
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