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      Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials

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          Abstract

          Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating.

          The impact of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method.

          Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade.

          Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption ( p < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2–3 months later ( p < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected ( p < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption ( p < 0.01). Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

          Highlights

          • Student involvement in marketing material design enhances its effectiveness.

          • Vegetable choice increases for students exposed to marketing materials.

          • Vegetable consumption increases most for students involved in designing materials.

          • Involvement provides an easy, inexpensive way to encourage vegetable consumption.

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          Most cited references14

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          Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

          In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.
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            Vital Signs: Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Children — United States, 2003–2010

            Background Eating more fruits and vegetables adds underconsumed nutrients to diets, reduces the risks for leading causes of illness and death, and helps manage body weight. This report describes trends in the contributions of fruits and vegetables to the diets of children aged 2–18 years. Methods CDC analyzed 1 day of 24-hour dietary recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2003 to 2010 to estimate trends in children’s fruit and vegetable intake in cup-equivalents per 1,000 calories (CEPC) and trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income to poverty ratio, and obesity status. Total fruit includes whole fruit (all fruit excluding juice) and fruit juice (from 100% juice, foods, and other beverages). Total vegetables include those encouraged in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (i.e., dark green, orange, and red vegetables and legumes), white potatoes, and all other vegetables. Results Total fruit intake among children increased from 0.55 CEPC in 2003–2004 to 0.62 in 2009–2010 because of significant increases in whole fruit intake (0.24 to 0.40 CEPC). Over this period, fruit juice intake significantly decreased (0.31 to 0.22 CEPC). Total vegetable intake did not change (0.54 to 0.53 CEPC). No socio-demographic group met the Healthy People 2020 target of 1.1 CEPC vegetables, and only children aged 2–5 years met the target of 0.9 CEPC fruits. Conclusions Children’s total fruit intake increased because of increases in whole fruit consumption, but total vegetable intake remained unchanged. Implications for Public Health Practice Increased attention to the policies and food environments in multiple settings, including schools, early care and education, and homes might help continue the progress in fruit intake and improve vegetable intake.
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              Smarter lunchrooms can address new school lunchroom guidelines and childhood obesity.

              New US Department of Agriculture regulations have altered what foods schools offer for lunch, but schools cannot require students to eat specific foods. An intervention using the behavioral science principle known as "libertarian paternalism" led junior-senior high school students to eat more fruits and vegetables by making these foods more convenient, attractive, and normative. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Prev Med Rep
                Prev Med Rep
                Preventive Medicine Reports
                Elsevier
                2211-3355
                23 March 2017
                June 2017
                23 March 2017
                : 6
                : 246-250
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States
                [b ]Department of Kinesiology and Sport Sciences, University of Nebraska-Kearney, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: 314A Filley Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States.314A Filley HallLincolnNE68583United States cgustafson6@ 123456unl.edu
                Article
                S2211-3355(17)30052-9
                10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.03.010
                5377912
                28377852
                ae0e0ad8-7bf3-41a6-a19f-e22e42e8678a
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Regular Article

                diet,vegetables,marketing,behavioral economics,child,nutrition
                diet, vegetables, marketing, behavioral economics, child, nutrition

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