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      A phylogenetic and taxonomic review of baviine jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae, Baviini)

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          Abstract

          The systematics and taxonomy of the tropical Asian jumping spiders of the tribe Baviini is reviewed, with a molecular phylogenetic study (UCE sequence capture, traditional Sanger sequencing) guiding a reclassification of the group’s genera. The well-studied members of the group are placed into six genera: Bavia Simon, 1877, Indopadilla Caleb & Sankaran, 2019, Padillothorax Simon, 1901, Piranthus Thorell, 1895, Stagetillus Simon, 1885, and one new genus, Maripanthus Maddison, gen. nov. The identity of Padillothorax is clarified, and Bavirecta Kanesharatnam & Benjamin, 2018 synonymized with it. Hyctiota Strand, 1911 is synonymized with Stagetillus . The molecular phylogeny divides the baviines into three clades, the Piranthus clade with a long embolus ( Piranthus , Maripanthus ), the genus Padillothorax with a flat body and short embolus, and the Bavia clade with a higher body and (usually) short embolus (remaining genera). In general, morphological synapomorphies support or extend the molecularly delimited groups. Eighteen new species are described: Bavia nessagyna , Indopadilla bamilin , I. kodagura , I. nesinor , I. redunca , I. redynis , I. sabivia , I. vimedaba , Maripanthus draconis (type species of Maripanthus ), M. jubatus , M. reinholdae , Padillothorax badut , P. mulu , Piranthus api , P. bakau , P. kohi , P. mandai , and Stagetillus irri , all sp. nov., with taxonomic authority W. Maddison. The distinctions between baviines and the astioid Nungia Żabka, 1985 are reviewed, leading to four species being moved into Nungia from Bavia and other genera. Fifteen new combinations are established: Bavia maurerae (Freudenschuss & Seiter, 2016), Indopadilla annamita (Simon, 1903), I. kahariana (Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2013), I. sonsorol (Berry, Beatty & Prószyński, 1997), I. suhartoi (Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2013), Maripanthus menghaiensis (Cao & Li, 2016), M. smedleyi (Reimoser, 1929), Nungia hatamensis (Thorell, 1881), N. modesta (Keyserling, 1883), N. papakula (Strand, 1911), N. xiaolonghaensis (Cao & Li, 2016), Padillothorax casteti (Simon, 1900), P. exilis (Cao & Li, 2016), P. flavopunctus (Kanesharatnam & Benjamin, 2018), Stagetillus banda (Strand, 1911), all comb. nov. One combination is restored, Bavia capistrata (C. L. Koch, 1846). Five of these new or restored combinations correct previous errors of placing species in genera that have superficially similar palps but extremely different body forms, in fact belonging in distantly related tribes, emphasizing that the general shape of male palps should be used with caution in determining relationships. A little-studied genus, Padillothorus Prószyński, 2018, is tentatively assigned to the Baviini . Ligdus Thorell, 1895 is assigned to the Ballini .

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

            Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

              Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                16 December 2020
                : 1004
                : 27-97
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Departments of Zoology and Botany and Beaty Biodiversity Museum, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
                [2 ] Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
                [3 ] National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bengaluru 560065, India
                [4 ] 205 River Valley Road, #16-53, Singapore 238274, Republic of Singapore
                [5 ] National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka
                [6 ] Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Eastern University, Vantharumoolai, Sri Lanka
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Wayne P. Maddison (wayne.maddison@ubc.ca)

                Academic editor: J. Miller

                Article
                57526
                10.3897/zookeys.1004.57526
                7758311
                Wayne P. Maddison, Imara Beattie, Kiran Marathe, Paul. Y. C. Ng, Nilani Kanesharatnam, Suresh P. Benjamin, Krushnamegh Kunte

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada 501100000038 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100000038
                Categories
                Research Article
                Salticidae
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Molecular systematics
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                Neogene
                Asia

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