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      Solvent strength of organic phase for two biphasic solvent systems in high speed countercurrent chromatography

      , , , , , ,
      Journal of Chromatography A
      Elsevier BV

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          Golden rules and pitfalls in selecting optimum conditions for high-speed counter-current chromatography.

          This paper aims to be an aid to those chemists who are interested in utilizing high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), which is free of irreversible adsorption and offers high resolution comparable to column chromatography. It explains the selection of HSCCC conditions step by step including the selection of two-phase solvent systems, determination of partition coefficient (K) of analytes, preparation of two-phase solvent system and sample solution, selection of elution mode, flow rate, rotation speed, and on-line monitoring of the eluate. The paper covers both standard HSCCC and pH-zone-refining CCC techniques. Technical terms (italic) unfamiliar to the beginner are comprehensively explained in Glossary. Various examples of two-phase solvent systems used in HSCCC are listed in Appendices A and B. The commercial sources of HSCCC and other CCC instruments are described in detail in the study edited by Berthod [A. Berthod (Ed.), Counter-current Chromatography, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003].
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            An overview of experimental designs in HPLC method development and validation

            Chemometric approaches have been increasingly viewed as precious complements to high performance liquid chromatographic practices, since a large number of variables can be simultaneously controlled to achieve the desired separations. Moreover, their applications may efficiently identify and optimize the significant factors to accomplish competent results through limited experimental trials. The present manuscript discusses usefulness of various chemometric approaches in high and ultra performance liquid chromatography for (i) methods development from dissolution studies and sample preparation to detection, considering the progressive substitution of traditional detectors with tandem mass spectrometry instruments and the importance of stability indicating assays (ii) method validation through screening and optimization designs. Choice of appropriate types of experimental designs so as to either screen the most influential factors or optimize the selected factors' combination and the mathematical models in chemometry have been briefly recalled and the advantages of chemometric approaches have been emphasized. The evolution of the design of experiments to the Quality by Design paradigm for method development has been reviewed and the Six Sigma practice as a quality indicator in chromatography has been explained. Chemometric applications and various strategies in chromatographic separations have been described.
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              Gradient elution in high-performance liquid chromatography

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of Chromatography A
                Journal of Chromatography A
                Elsevier BV
                00219673
                September 2022
                September 2022
                : 1680
                : 463422
                Article
                10.1016/j.chroma.2022.463422
                ae166b5f-358d-4a04-adac-ca09055b4e03
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

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