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      QTL Mapping for Phosphorus Efficiency and Morphological Traits at Seedling and Maturity Stages in Wheat

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          Abstract

          Phosphorus (P) efficiency (PE), which comprises phosphorus uptake (PupE) and utilization efficiency (PutE), is considered as one of the most important factors for crop yield. In the present study, 11 seedling traits and 13 maturity traits related to wheat PE and morphology were investigated using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of “TN 18 × LM 6,” under hydroponic culture trials and field trials at low P (LP) and normal P (NP) levels in two different years, respectively. The LP input reduced of biomass, yield and PupE traits, but increased PutE traits. A total of 163 QTLs for seedling and maturity traits under different P levels and their AV, and 15 QTLs for relative traits were detected on 21 chromosomes. Of these, 49 and 63 QTLs for were detected specially in LP and NP treatments, respectively. We found 11 relatively high-frequency QTLs (RHF-QTLs) and four important QTL clusters, which may be the potential targets for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs for PE. Favorable relationships for breeding programs were found in the four important QTL clusters, which allow the possibility of improving the morphological traits and PutE simultaneously. A total of 29 markers which associated with 51 QTLs were found highly homologous with EST sequences, which suggested that they were potential functional loci. We suggested that the four biomass traits (SDW, RDW, TDW, and RSDW), five yield traits (SN, PH, TGW, GWP, and StWP) and two relative traits (Rstwp and Rgwp) can be considered as the primary indexes for the evaluation of PE for they are easy to identify on a large-scale.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Roots of the Second Green Revolution

          The Green Revolution boosted crop yields in developing nations by introducing dwarf genotypes of wheat and rice capable of responding to fertilisation without lodging. We now need a second Green Revolution, to improve the yield of crops grown in infertile soils by farmers with little access to fertiliser, who represent the majority of third-world farmers. Just as the Green Revolution was based on crops responsive to high soil fertility, the second Green Revolution will be based on crops tolerant of low soil fertility. Substantial genetic variation in the productivity of crops in infertile soil has been known for over a century. In recent years we have developed a better understanding of the traits responsible for this variation. Root architecture is critically important by determining soil exploration and therefore nutrient acquisition. Architectural traits under genetic control include basal-root gravitropism, adventitious-root formation and lateral branching. Architectural traits that enhance topsoil foraging are important for acquisition of phosphorus from infertile soils. Genetic variation in the length and density of root hairs is important for the acquisition of immobile nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. Genetic variation in root cortical aerenchyma formation and secondary development (‘root etiolation’) are important in reducing the metabolic costs of root growth and soil exploration. Genetic variation in rhizosphere modification through the efflux of protons, organic acids and enzymes is important for the mobilisation of nutrients such as phosphorus and transition metals, and the avoidance of aluminum toxicity. Manipulation of ion transporters may be useful for improving the acquisition of nitrate and for enhancing salt tolerance. With the noteworthy exceptions of rhizosphere modification and ion transporters, most of these traits are under complex genetic control. Genetic variation in these traits is associated with substantial yield gains in low-fertility soils, as illustrated by the case of phosphorus efficiency in bean and soybean. In breeding crops for low-fertility soils, selection for specific root traits through direct phenotypic evaluation or molecular markers is likely to be more productive than conventional field screening. Crop genotypes with greater yield in infertile soils will substantially improve the productivity and sustainability of low-input agroecosystems, and in high-input agroecosystems will reduce the environmental impacts of intensive fertilisation. Although the development of crops with reduced fertiliser requirements has been successful in the few cases it has been attempted, the global scientific effort devoted to this enterprise is small, especially considering the magnitude of the humanitarian, environmental and economic benefits being forgone. Population growth, ongoing soil degradation and increasing costs of chemical fertiliser will make the second Green Revolution a priority for plant biology in the 21st century.
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            Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure.

            Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker-trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype x environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive x additive interaction effects of traits.
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              Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review

              Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. Scope This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. Conclusions The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                24 April 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China
                2Jinan Academy of Agricultural Science Jinan, China
                3Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Weifang University Weifang, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Raul Antonio Sperotto, Centro Universitário Univates, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Peter Ryan, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia; Xue Gong, University of Adelaide, Australia; Andres Gutierrez, Organizacion Pajonales, Colombia

                *Correspondence: Fangmei Kong fmkong@ 123456sdau.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Plant Nutrition, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2017.00614
                5402226
                Copyright © 2017 Yuan, Gao, Zhang, Zheng, Zhou, Guo, Zhao, Kong and Li.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 13, Words: 9458
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 31201671
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province 10.13039/501100007129
                Award ID: BS2013SW011
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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