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      Follow-up monitoring in a cat with leishmaniosis and coinfections with Hepatozoon felis and ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’

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          Abstract

          Case summary

          A 6-year-old female neutered domestic shorthair cat from Cyprus was presented with multiple ulcerated skin nodules. Cytology and histopathology of the lesions revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intracytoplasmic organisms, consistent with amastigotes of Leishmania species. Biochemistry identified a mild hyperproteinaemia. Blood extraction and PCR detected Leishmania species, Hepatozoon species and ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) DNA. Subsequent sequencing identified Hepatozoon felis. Additionally, the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 locus of Leishmania infantum was partially sequenced and phylogeny showed it to cluster with species derived from dogs in Italy and Uzbekistan, and a human in France. Allopurinol treatment was administered for 6 months. Clinical signs resolved in the second month of treatment with no deterioration 8 months post-treatment cessation. Quantitative PCR and ELISA were used to monitor L infantum blood DNA and antibody levels. The cat had high L infantum DNA levels pretreatment that gradually declined during treatment but increased 8 months post-treatment cessation. Similarly, ELISA revealed high levels of antibodies pretreatment, which gradually declined during treatment and increased slightly 8 months post-treatment cessation. The cat remained PCR positive for CMhm and Hepatozoon species throughout the study. There was no clinical evidence of relapse 24 months post-treatment.

          Relevance and novel information

          To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of a cat with leishmaniosis with H felis and CMhm coinfections. The high L infantum DNA levels post-treatment cessation might indicate that although the lesions had resolved, prolonged or an alternative treatment could have been considered.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Infection of sandflies by a cat naturally infected with Leishmania infantum.

          Despite the recent reports of feline leishmaniosis from Southern Europe, cats are still regarded as unusual Leishmania hosts. A cat found chronically infected with Leishmania was submitted to xenodiagnosis. After being sedated, the animal was exposed to the bite of 100 laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus in a fine net cage for 90 min. Four out of 19 blood-fed sandflies (21%) showed motile promastigotes at the dissection. Parasites cultured from cat's lymph node and an infected fly were identical at PCR-RFLP genotyping and identified as Leishmania infantum MON-1, the main zymodeme responsible for human and canine leishmaniosis in Southern Europe. This is the first evidence of transmissibility of feline parasites to a proven vector, suggesting that cats may represent an additional domestic reservoir for L. infantum.
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            LeishVet update and recommendations on feline leishmaniosis

            Limited data is available on feline leishmaniosis (FeL) caused by Leishmania infantum worldwide. The LeishVet group presents in this report a review of the current knowledge on FeL, the epidemiological role of the cat in L. infantum infection, clinical manifestations, and recommendations on diagnosis, treatment and monitoring, prognosis and prevention of infection, in order to standardize the management of this disease in cats. The consensus of opinions and recommendations was formulated by combining a comprehensive review of evidence-based studies and case reports, clinical experience and critical consensus discussions. While subclinical feline infections are common in areas endemic for canine leishmaniosis, clinical illness due to L. infantum in cats is rare. The prevalence rates of feline infection with L. infantum in serological or molecular-based surveys range from 0 % to more than 60 %. Cats are able to infect sand flies and, therefore, they may act as a secondary reservoir, with dogs being the primary natural reservoir. The most common clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities compatible with FeL include lymph node enlargement and skin lesions such as ulcerative, exfoliative, crusting or nodular dermatitis (mainly on the head or distal limbs), ocular lesions (mainly uveitis), feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome, mucocutaneous ulcerative or nodular lesions, hypergammaglobulinaemia and mild normocytic normochromic anaemia. Clinical illness is frequently associated with impaired immunocompetence, as in case of retroviral coinfections or immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosis is based on serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) or culture. If serological testing is negative or low positive in a cat with clinical signs compatible with FeL, the diagnosis of leishmaniosis should not be excluded and additional diagnostic methods (cytology, histology with IHC, PCR, culture) should be employed. The most common treatment used is allopurinol. Meglumine antimoniate has been administered in very few reported cases. Both drugs are administered alone and most cats recover clinically after therapy. Follow-up of treated cats with routine laboratory tests, serology and PCR is essential for prevention of clinical relapses. Specific preventative measures for this infection in cats are currently not available.
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              Canine leishmaniosis in the United Kingdom: a zoonotic disease waiting for a vector?

              Leishmaniosis is an important sand fly transmitted protozoan disease of dogs and humans. In northern Europe, infection is mainly restricted to dogs that have travelled to and/or from endemic areas of the Mediterranean region during periods when there is high sand fly exposure, mostly between March and November. Infected dogs in these areas in northern latitudes are a potential reservoir should incursion of a competent vector occur. However, information on the scale of the potential reservoir in the UK is lacking. Confirmed cases of canine leishmaniosis entering the United Kingdom between 2005 and 2007 were identified using diagnostic samples submitted to the Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol and from collaborating laboratories (n=257). All study dogs had clinico-pathological signs compatible with leishmaniosis, as typically reported in endemic countries and were leishmania positive in real time or conventional PCR tests, IFA serology and/or tissue microscopic examination for amastigote identification. Information obtained from each case included travel history, habitat, clinico-pathological findings and geographical location once located in the UK. The majority of dogs with complete travel history (n=183) had spent at least 6 months in Spain (105/183), 28/183 were rescued from re-homing centres in the country of origin and 26/183 entered the UK with confirmed leishmaniosis. Once located in the UK, the majority of positive cases were resident in south and central England. The spectrum of clinico-pathological signs for this group of dogs is similar to that reported in endemic countries. These data confirm that a potentially significant reservoir of infected dogs is resident in areas where future climatic conditions may support introduction of competent vectors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JFMS Open Rep
                JFMS Open Rep
                JOR
                spjor
                JFMS Open Reports
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                2055-1169
                14 November 2017
                Jul-Dec 2017
                : 3
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Molecular Diagnostic Unit, Diagnostic Laboratories, Langford Vets and Bristol Veterinary School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
                [2 ]Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK
                [3 ]Cyvets Veterinary Centre, Paphos, Cyprus
                [4 ]Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
                [5 ]Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
                Author notes
                Charalampos Attipa DVM, Royal Veterinary College Diagnostic Laboratory Services, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK Email: attipacy@ 123456gmail.com
                [*]

                Current address: Bridge Pathology, Bristol, UK

                Article
                10.1177_2055116917740454
                10.1177/2055116917740454
                5692141
                © The Author(s) 2017

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Case Report
                Custom metadata
                July-December 2017

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