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      Pattern Analysis of Left Ventricular Remodeling Using Cardiac Computed Tomography in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: Preliminary Results

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          To assess left ventricular remodeling patterns using cardiac computed tomography (CT) in children with congenital heart disease and correlate these patterns with their clinical course.

          Materials and Methods

          Left ventricular volume and myocardial mass were quantified in 17 children with congenital heart disease who underwent initial and follow-up end-systolic cardiac CT studies with a mean follow-up duration of 8.4 ± 9.7 months. Based on changes in the indexed left ventricular myocardial mass (LVMi) and left ventricular mass-volume ratio (LVMVR), left ventricular remodeling between the two serial cardiac CT examinations was categorized into one of four patterns: pattern 1, increased LVMi and increased LVMVR; pattern 2, decreased LVMi and decreased LVMVR; pattern 3, increased LVMi and decreased LVMVR; and pattern 4, decreased LVMi and increased LVMVR. Left ventricular remodeling patterns were correlated with unfavorable clinical courses.


          Baseline LVMi and LVMVR were 65.1 ± 37.9 g/m 2 and 4.0 ± 3.2 g/mL, respectively. LVMi increased in 10 patients and decreased in seven patients. LVMVR increased in seven patients and decreased in 10 patients. Pattern 1 was observed in seven patients, pattern 2 in seven, and pattern 3 in three patients. Unfavorable events were observed in 29% (2/7) of patients with pattern 1 and 67% (2/3) of patients with pattern 3, but no such events occurred in pattern 2 during the follow-up period (4.4 ± 2.7 years).


          Left ventricular remodeling patterns can be characterized using cardiac CT in children with congenital heart disease and may be used to predict their clinical course.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the roles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in evaluating pathophysiology and for pulmonary valve replacement decision support

           Tal Geva (2011)
          Surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in anatomic and functional abnormalities in the majority of patients. Although right ventricular volume load due to severe pulmonary regurgitation can be tolerated for many years, there is now evidence that the compensatory mechanisms of the right ventricular myocardium ultimately fail and that if the volume load is not eliminated or reduced by pulmonary valve replacement the dysfunction might be irreversible. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved during the last 2 decades as the reference standard imaging modality to assess the anatomic and functional sequelae in patients with repaired TOF. This article reviews the pathophysiology of chronic right ventricular volume load after TOF repair and the risks and benefits of pulmonary valve replacement. The CMR techniques used to comprehensively evaluate the patient with repaired TOF are reviewed and the role of CMR in supporting clinical decisions regarding pulmonary valve replacement is discussed.
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            Quantification of diffuse myocardial fibrosis and its association with myocardial dysfunction in congenital heart disease.

            the etiology of ventricular dysfunction in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) is not well understood. Diffuse fibrosis is a likely common final pathway and is quantifiable using MRI. patients with ACHD (n=50) were studied with cardiac MRI to quantify systemic ventricular volume and function and diffuse fibrosis. The fibrosis index for a single midventricular plane of the systemic ventricle was quantified by measuring T1 values for blood pool and myocardium before and after administration of gadolinium (0.15 mmol/kg) and then adjusted for hematocrit. Results were compared to healthy volunteers (normal controls, n=14) and patients with acquired heart failure (positive controls, n=4). Patients studied (age, 37±12 years; female sex, 40%) included 11 with a systemic right ventricle (RV), 17 with tetralogy of Fallot, 10 with cyanosis, and 12 with other lesions. The fibrosis index was significantly elevated in patients with ACHD compared to normal controls (31.9±4.9% versus 24.8±2.0%; P=0.001). Values were highest in patients with a systemic RV (35.0±5.8%; P<0.001) and those who were cyanotic (33.7±5.6%; P<0.001). The fibrosis index correlated with end-diastolic volume index (r=0.60; P<0.001) and ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.53; P<0.001) but not with age or oxygen saturation in patients who were cyanotic. Late gadolinium enhancement did not account for the differences seen. patients with ACHD have evidence of diffuse, extracellular matrix remodeling similar to patients with acquired heart failure. The fibrosis index may facilitate studies on the mechanisms and treatment of myocardial fibrosis and heart failure in these patients.
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              CT Radiation Dose Optimization and Estimation: an Update for Radiologists

               Hyun Goo (2011)
              In keeping with the increasing utilization of CT examinations, the greater concern about radiation hazards from examinations has been addressed. In this regard, CT radiation dose optimization has been given a great deal of attention by radiologists, referring physicians, technologists, and physicists. Dose-saving strategies are continuously evolving in terms of imaging techniques as well as dose management. Consequently, regular updates of this issue are necessary especially for radiologists who play a pivotal role in this activity. This review article will provide an update on how we can optimize CT dose in order to maximize the benefit-to-risk ratio of this clinically useful diagnostic imaging method.

                Author and article information

                Korean J Radiol
                Korean J Radiol
                Korean Journal of Radiology
                The Korean Society of Radiology
                June 2020
                27 April 2020
                : 21
                : 6
                : 717-725
                Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hyun Woo Goo, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea. Tel: (822) 3010-4388, Fax: (822) 476-0090, ghw68@
                Copyright © 2020 The Korean Society of Radiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Pediatric Imaging
                Brief Communication


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