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      Specializing Nurses as An Indirect Education Program for Stoma Patients

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          Abstract

          Education programs are beneficial for patients with different chronic conditions. Prior studies have examined direct education, where information is transferred directly to patients. In contrast, in this program, information is transferred directly to nurses who become specialists and transfer education individually to patients. Hence, this paper evaluates the impact of having specialist nurses for stoma patients at hospitals, as those nurses provide healthcare to patients but also inform and educate patients about their condition and needs. The analysis uses an observational study with ostomized patients in Spain at hospitals with and without specialist nurses, and measures health service utilization and health-related quality of life (HRQL), besides performing a cost analysis and a cost-effectiveness analysis at both types of hospitals. The results show that patients with access to specialist nurses self-manage better, present lower adverse events and a better evolution of HRQL, and significantly demand more consultations with specialist nurses and less to A&E, primary care or specialists, resulting in important savings for the health system. Consequently, specializing or hiring nurses to provide indirect education to stoma patients is cost-effective and highly beneficial for patients. This type of indirect education strategy might be considered for specific conditions with low incidence or difficulties in identifying target patients or delivering information directly to them.

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          Self management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Self management interventions help patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acquire and practise the skills they need to carry out disease-specific medical regimens, guide changes in health behaviour and provide emotional support to enable patients to control their disease. Since the first update of this review in 2007, several studies have been published. The results of the second update are reported here.
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            Structured patient education: the diabetes X-PERT Programme makes a difference.

            To develop a patient-centred, group-based self-management programme (X-PERT), based on theories of empowerment and discovery learning, and to assess the effectiveness of the programme on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes. Adults with Type 2 diabetes (n = 314), living in Burnley, Pendle or Rossendale, Lancashire, UK were randomized to either individual appointments (control group) (n = 157) or the X-PERT Programme (n = 157). X-PERT patients were invited to attend six 2-h group sessions of self-management education. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 4 and 14 months. One hundred and forty-nine participants (95%) attended the X-PERT Programme, with 128 (82%) attending four or more sessions. By 14 months the X-PERT group compared with the control group showed significant improvements in the mean HbA1c (- 0.6% vs. + 0.1%, repeated measures anova, P < 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) for preventing diabetes medication increase was 4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3, 7] and NNT for reducing diabetes medication was 7 (95% CI 5, 11). Statistically significant improvements were also shown in the X-PERT patients compared with the control patients for body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total cholesterol, self-empowerment, diabetes knowledge, physical activity levels, foot care, fruit and vegetable intake, enjoyment of food and treatment satisfaction. Participation in the X-PERT Programme by adults with Type 2 diabetes was shown at 14 months to have led to improved glycaemic control, reduced total cholesterol level, body weight, BMI and waist circumference, reduced requirement for diabetes medication, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, enjoyment of food, knowledge of diabetes, self-empowerment, self-management skills and treatment satisfaction.
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              Active patient involvement in the education of health professionals.

              Patients as educators (teaching intimate physical examination) first appeared in the 1960s. Since then, rationales for the active involvement of patients as educators have been well articulated. There is great potential to promote the learning of patient-centred practice, interprofessional collaboration, community involvement, shared decision making and how to support self-care. We reviewed and summarised the literature on active patient involvement in health professional education. A synthesis of the literature reveals increasing diversity in the ways in which patients are involved in education, but also the movement's weaknesses. Most initiatives are 'one-off' events and are reported as basic descriptions. There is little rigorous research or theory of practice or investigation of behavioural outcomes. The literature is scattered and uses terms (such as 'patient'!) that are contentious and confusing. We propose future directions for research and development, including a taxonomy to facilitate dialogue, an outline of a research strategy and reference to a comprehensive bibliography covering all health and human services.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                27 June 2019
                July 2019
                : 16
                : 13
                Affiliations
                Department of Applied & Structural Economics and History, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain; mggoni@ 123456ucm.es
                Article
                ijerph-16-02272
                10.3390/ijerph16132272
                6651232
                31252585
                ae293094-582c-4498-9092-8414e6120149
                © 2019 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                patient education, program evaluation, specialist nurse, stoma care, cost-effectiveness

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