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      Enhancement of Cell Viability in Cryopreserved Rat Vascular Grafts by Administration of Regenerating Gene (Reg) Inducers

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          Abstract

          The regenerative capacity of viable cells remaining in cryopreserved vascular allografts is still unclear. Recently, the regenerating gene (Reg) has been documented to play an important role in various regenerating tissues. Here we show the possibility of Reg induction for the enhancement of cryopreserved vascular allograft viability. Cryopreserved rat aortae were isografted or allografted heterotopically. Fresh isografts were also tested. The transplants were retrieved 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after implantation and the intragraft Reg mRNA was measured by a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction method. Reg expression was not detected before implantation. Reg expression in cryopreserved isografts gradually increased after transplantation, whereas in fresh isografts or cryopreserved allografts it decreased over time after initial expression. Daily administration of 0.5 g/kg nicotinamide (an agent known to be a potent inducer of Reg) induced intragraft Reg mRNA in cryopreserved allografts (p < 0.05) accompanied by augmentation of the intragraft cell population. Daily administration of 0.5 mg/kg FK506 (an immunosuppressant) induced intragraft Reg mRNA both in cryopreserved isografts and allografts (p < 0.01). We conclude that Reg-inductive therapy shows promise as a novel strategy for enhancing the viability of vascular allografts. Moreover, FK506 may be involved in tissue regeneration as well as immunosuppression.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Activation of Reg gene, a gene for insulin-producing beta -cell regeneration: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase binds Reg promoter and regulates the transcription by autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

          The regeneration of pancreatic islet beta cells is important for the prevention and cure of diabetes mellitus. We have demonstrated that the administration of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase/polymerase (PARP) inhibitors such as nicotinamide to 90% depancreatized rats induces islet regeneration. From the regenerating islet-derived cDNA library, we have isolated Reg (regenerating gene) and demonstrated that Reg protein induces beta-cell replication via the Reg receptor and ameliorates experimental diabetes. However, the mechanism by which Reg gene is activated in beta cells has been elusive. In this study, we found that the combined addition of IL-6 and dexamethasone induced the expression of Reg gene in beta cells and that PARP inhibitors enhanced the expression. Reporter gene assays revealed that the -81 approximately -70 region (TGCCCCTCCCAT) of the Reg gene promoter is a cis-element for the expression of Reg gene. Gel mobility shift assays showed that the active transcriptional DNA/protein complex was formed by the stimulation with IL-6 and dexamethasone. Surprisingly, PARP bound to the cis-element and was involved in the active transcriptional DNA/protein complex. The DNA/protein complex formation was inhibited depending on the autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP in the complex. Thus, PARP inhibitors enhance the DNA/protein complex formation for Reg gene transcription and stabilize the complex by inhibiting the autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP.
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            A Schwann cell mitogen accompanying regeneration of motor neurons.

            Motor neurons are the only adult mammalian neurons of the central nervous system to regenerate following injury. This ability is dependent on the environment of the peripheral nerve and an intrinsic capacity of motor neurons for regrowth. We report here the identification, using a technique known as messenger RNA differential display, of an extracellular signalling molecule, previously described as the pancreatic secreted protein Reg-2, that is expressed solely in regenerating and developing rat motor and sensory neurons. Axon-stimulated Schwann cell proliferation is necessary for successful regeneration, and we show that Reg-2 is a potent Schwann cell mitogen in vitro. In vivo, Reg-2 protein is transported along regrowing axons and inhibition of Reg-2 signalling significantly retards the regeneration of Reg-2-containing axons. During development, Reg-2 production by motor and sensory neurons is regulated by contact with peripheral targets. Strong candidates for peripheral factors regulating Reg-2 production are cytokines of the LIF/CNTF family, because Reg-2 is not expressed in developing motor or sensory neurons of mice carrying a targeted disruption of the LIF receptor gene, a common component of the receptor complexes for all of the LIF/CNTF family.
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              Long-term results of cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction in infected prosthetic grafts and mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta.

              This prospective, observational study determined the long-term outcome in patients with abdominal aortic infection (primary or prosthetic graft) who were treated with simultaneous aortic/graft excision and cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction. From April 1992 to March 2000, patients with abdominal aortic infection underwent complete or partial excision of the infected aorta/prosthetic graft and cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction. Arterial allografts were harvested from multiple organ donors and cryopreserved at -80 degrees C without rate-controlled freezing. The patients were observed for survival, limb salvage, persistence and/or recurrence of infection, and allograft patency. The results were calculated with life-table methods. During the 8-year study period, 28 consecutive patients (27 men, 1 woman; mean age, 64 years) underwent treatment for abdominal aortic infection (23 graft infections, including 7 graft-enteric fistulas and 5 primary aortic infections). Allograft reconstruction was performed as an emergency procedure in 13 patients (46%). The mean follow-up period was 35.4 months (range, 6-101 months). The overall treatment-related mortality rate was 17.8% (17% for graft infection, 20% for primary aortic infection). The overall 3-year survival was 67%. There was no early or late amputation. There was no persistent or recurrent infection, and none of the patients received long-term (> 3 months) antibiotic therapy. Reoperation for allograft revision, excision, or replacement was necessary in four patients (17%) who were available for examination, with no reoperative perioperative death. The 3-year primary and secondary allograft patency rates were 81% and 96%, respectively. Our experience with cryopreserved arterial allograft in the management of abdominal aortic infection suggests that this technique seems to be a useful option for treating one of the most dreaded vascular complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2003
                April 2003
                19 June 2003
                : 40
                : 2
                : 132-139
                Affiliations
                Departments of aSurgery III and bPublic Health, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, and cDepartment of Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
                Article
                70710 J Vasc Res 2003;40:132–139
                10.1159/000070710
                12808349
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 38, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Paper

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