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      Atherosclerosis: Basic Mechanisms

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          Abstract

          Circulation, 91(9), 2488-2496

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          Most cited references54

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          Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity.

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            Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and matrix degrading activity in vulnerable regions of human atherosclerotic plaques.

            Dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism may contribute to vascular remodeling during the development and complication of human atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that degrade ECM components in human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 30) and in uninvolved arterial specimens (n = 11). We studied members of all three MMP classes (interstitial collagenase, MMP-1; gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9; and stromelysin, MMP-3) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs 1 and 2) by immunocytochemistry, zymography, and immunoprecipitation. Normal arteries stained uniformly for 72-kD gelatinase and TIMPs. In contrast, plaques' shoulders and regions of foam cell accumulation displayed locally increased expression of 92-kD gelatinase, stromelysin, and interstitial collagenase. However, the mere presence of MMP does not establish their catalytic capacity, as the zymogens lack activity, and TIMPs may block activated MMPs. All plaque extracts contained activated forms of gelatinases determined zymographically and by degradation of 3H-collagen type IV. To test directly whether atheromata actually contain active matrix-degrading enzymes in situ, we devised a method which allows the detection and microscopic localization of MMP enzymatic activity directly in tissue sections. In situ zymography revealed gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activity in frozen sections of atherosclerotic but not of uninvolved arterial tissues. The MMP inhibitors, EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, as well as recombinant TIMP-1, reduced these activities which colocalized with regions of increased immunoreactive MMP expression, i.e., the shoulders, core, and microvasculature of the plaques. Focal overexpression of activated MMP may promote destabilization and complication of atherosclerotic plaques and provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
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              Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis.

              Evidence to support an important role of oxidative modification in mediating the atherogenicity of LDL continues to grow. New hypotheses suggest mechanisms by which Ox-LDL or products of Ox-LDL can affect many components of the atherogenic process, including vasomotor properties and thrombosis, as well as lesion initiation and progression itself. These ideas suggest new approaches, that in combination with lowering of plasma cholesterol, could lead to the prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1995
                May 1995
                29 June 2019
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.91.9.2488
                7729036
                ae348c17-2ba3-4f5f-b538-74c039338e9a

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