Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a global health challenge with limited therapeutic options. Anti-angiogenic immune checkpoint inhibitor-based combination therapy has been introduced for progressed HCC, but improves survival only in a subset of HCC patients. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as sorafenib represent an alternative treatment option but have only modest efficacy. Using different HCC cell lines and HCC tissues from various patients reflecting HCC heterogeneity, we investigated whether the sorafenib response could be enhanced by combination with pro-apoptotic agents, such as TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or the BH3-mimetic ABT-737, which target the death receptor and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, respectively. We found that both agents could enhance sorafenib-induced cell death which was, however, dependent on specific BH3-only proteins. TRAIL augmented sorafenib-induced cell death only in NOXA-expressing HCC cells, whereas ABT-737 enhanced the sorafenib response also in NOXA-deficient cells. ABT-737, however, failed to augment sorafenib cytotoxicity in the absence of BIM, even when NOXA was strongly expressed. In the presence of NOXA, BIM-deficient HCC cells could be in turn strongly sensitized for cell death induction by the combination of sorafenib with TRAIL. Accordingly, HCC tissues sensitive to apoptosis induction by sorafenib and TRAIL revealed enhanced NOXA expression compared to HCC tissues resistant to this treatment combination. Thus, our results suggest that BH3-only protein expression determines the treatment response of HCC to different sorafenib-based drug combinations. Individual profiling of BH3-only protein expression might therefore assist patient stratification to certain TKI-based HCC therapies.