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      Indole and synthetic derivative activate chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in SCA17 neuronal cell and slice culture models

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          Abstract

          In spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17), the expansion of a translated CAG repeat in the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene results in a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the TBP protein, leading to intracellular accumulation of aggregated TBP and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein aggregation to ameliorate downstream harmful events. In this study, we used Tet-On SH-SY5Y cells with inducible SCA17 TBP/Q 79-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression to test indole and synthetic derivative NC001-8 for neuroprotection. We found that indole and NC001-8 up-regulated chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in neuronal differentiated TBP/Q 79 cells. The effects on promoting neurite outgrowth and on reduction of aggregation on Purkinje cells were also confirmed with cerebellar primary and slice cultures of SCA17 transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate how indole and derivative NC001-8 reduce polyQ aggregation to support their therapeutic potentials in SCA17 treatment.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Expansion of an unstable trinucleotide CAG repeat in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

          Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the cerebellum, spinal cord and brainstem. A 1.2-Megabase stretch of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 6 containing the SCA1 locus was isolated in a yeast artificial chromosome contig and subcloned into cosmids. A highly polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in this region and was found to be unstable and expanded in individuals with SCA1. There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age-of-onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases. We also show that the repeat is present in a 10 kilobase mRNA transcript. SCA1 is therefore the fifth genetic disorder to display a mutational mechanism involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat.
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            Suppression of polyglutamine-mediated neurodegeneration in Drosophila by the molecular chaperone HSP70.

            At least eight inherited human neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of a polyglutamine domain within the respective proteins. This confers dominant toxicity on the proteins, leading to dysfunction and loss of neurons. Expanded polyglutamine proteins form aggregates, including nuclear inclusions (NI), within neurons, possibly due to misfolding of the proteins. NI are ubiquitinated and sequester molecular chaperone proteins and proteasome components, suggesting that disease pathogenesis includes activation of cellular stress pathways to help refold, disaggregate or degrade the mutant disease proteins. Overexpression of specific chaperone proteins reduces polyglutamine aggregation in transfected cells, but whether this alters toxicity is unknown. Using a Drosophila melanogaster model of polyglutamine disease, we show that directed expression of the molecular chaperone HSP70 suppresses polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration in vivo. Suppression by HSP70 occurred without a visible effect on NI formation, indicating that polyglutamine toxicity can be dissociated from formation of large aggregates. Our studies indicate that HSP70 or related molecular chaperones may provide a means of treating these and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with abnormal protein conformation and toxicity.
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              Effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma as in vitro model in neurotoxicity research.

              Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y is a dopaminergic neuronal cell line which has been used as an in vitro model for neurotoxicity experiments. Although the neuroblastoma is usually differentiated by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), both RA-differentiated and undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells have been used in neuroscience research. However, the changes in neuronal properties triggered by RA as well as the subsequent responsiveness to neurotoxins have not been comprehensively studied. Therefore, we aim to re-evaluate the differentiation property of RA on this cell line. We hypothesize that modulation of signaling pathways and neuronal properties during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells can affect their susceptibility to neurotoxins. The differentiation property of RA was confirmed by showing an extensive outgrowth of neurites, increased expressions of neuronal nuclei, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and synaptic associated protein-97, and decreased expression of inhibitor of differentiation-1. While undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells were susceptible to 6-OHDA and MPP+, RA-differentiation conferred SH-SY5Y cells higher tolerance, potentially by up-regulating survival signaling, including Akt pathway as inhibition of Akt removed RA-induced neuroprotection against 6-OHDA. As a result, the real toxicity cannot be revealed in RA-differentiated cells. Therefore, undifferentiated SH-SY5Y is more appropriate for studying neurotoxicity or neuroprotection in experimental Parkinson's disease research.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                16 October 2014
                : 8
                : 1929-1939
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guey-Jen Lee-Chen, Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Ting-Chou Rd, Sec 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan, Tel +886 2 7734 6359, Fax +886 2 2931 2904, Email t43019@ 123456ntnu.edu.tw
                Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li, Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Ting-Chou Rd, Sec 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan, Tel +886 2 7734 6354, Fax +886 2 2931 2904, Email hmhsieh@ 123456ntnu.edu.tw

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-8-1929
                10.2147/DDDT.S67376
                4206201
                © 2014 Kung et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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