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      RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update

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          RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI). Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality assessment as a common basic tool.

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          Drug-induced liver injury: an analysis of 461 incidences submitted to the Spanish registry over a 10-year period.

          Progress in the understanding of susceptibility factors to drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and outcome predictability are hampered by the lack of systematic programs to detect bona fide cases. A cooperative network was created in 1994 in Spain to identify all suspicions of DILI following a prospective structured report form. The liver damage was characterized according to hepatocellular, cholestatic, and mixed laboratory criteria and to histologic criteria when available. Further evaluation of causality assessment was centrally performed. Since April 1994 to August 2004, 461 out of 570 submitted cases, involving 505 drugs, were deemed to be related to DILI. The antiinfective group of drugs was the more frequently incriminated, amoxicillin-clavulanate accounting for the 12.8% of the whole series. The hepatocellular pattern of damage was the most common (58%), was inversely correlated with age (P < .0001), and had the worst outcome (Cox regression, P < .034). Indeed, the incidence of liver transplantation and death in this group was 11.7% if patients had jaundice at presentation, whereas the corresponding figure was 3.8% in nonjaundiced patients (P < .04). Factors associated with the development of fulminant hepatic failure were female sex (OR = 25; 95% CI: 4.1-151; P < .0001), hepatocellular damage (OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 1.6-37; P < .009), and higher baseline plasma bilirubin value (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.09-1.22; P < .0001). Patients with drug-induced hepatocellular jaundice have 11.7% chance of progressing to death or transplantation. Amoxicillin-clavulanate stands out as the most common drug related to DILI.
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            Causes, clinical features, and outcomes from a prospective study of drug-induced liver injury in the United States.

            Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is among the most common causes of acute liver failure in the United States, accounting for approximately 13% of cases. A prospective study was begun in 2003 to recruit patients with suspected DILI and create a repository of biological samples for analysis. This report summarizes the causes, clinical features, and outcomes from the first 300 patients enrolled. Patients with suspected DILI were enrolled based on predefined criteria and followed up for at least 6 months. Patients with acetaminophen liver injury were excluded. DILI was caused by a single prescription medication in 73% of the cases, by dietary supplements in 9%, and by multiple agents in 18%. More than 100 different agents were associated with DILI; antimicrobials (45.5%) and central nervous system agents (15%) were the most common. Causality was considered to be definite in 32%, highly likely in 41%, probable in 14%, possible in 10%, and unlikely in 3%. Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was the final diagnosis in 4 of 9 unlikely cases. Six months after enrollment, 14% of patients had persistent laboratory abnormalities and 8% had died; the cause of death was liver related in 44%. DILI is caused by a wide array of medications, herbal supplements, and dietary supplements. Antibiotics are the single largest class of agents that cause DILI. Acute HCV infection should be excluded in patients with suspected DILI by HCV RNA testing. The overall 6-month mortality was 8%, but the majority of deaths were not liver related.
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              Incidence of drug-induced hepatic injuries: a French population-based study.

              The incidence of hepatic adverse drug reactions (ADRs) remains unknown in the general population. The goal of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and seriousness of hepatic ADRs. All new cases of symptomatic drug-induced hepatic injuries were collected by 139 trained physicians (general practitioners [GPs] and specialists) between November 1997 and November 2000 in an area containing 81,301 inhabitants who could not go elsewhere for medical care. Over 3 years, 34 cases of hepatic ADRs were collected, 82% of them in outpatients. Global crude annual incidence rate was 13.9 +/- 2.4 per 100,000 inhabitants; corresponding standardized annual global rate was 8.1 +/- 1.5. There was no difference between urban and rural areas. Standardized incidence female/male ratio was 0.86 (0.26-2.90) until 49 years of age and 2.62 (1.00-6.92) after this age. Diagnosis was carried out by GPs in half of the cases. The outcome was recovery for 32 patients and death for 2. The main drugs implicated were anti-infectious, psychotropic, hypolipidemic agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our results suggest that the number of hepatic ADRs in the French population would be 16 times greater than the number noted by spontaneous reporting to French regulatory authorities. In conclusion, the incidence and seriousness of drug-induced hepatitis are largely underestimated in the general population. These results may be useful for further evaluation of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                24 December 2015
                January 2016
                : 17
                : 1
                [1 ]Pharmacovigilance Consultancy, rue des Ormeaux, 75020 Paris, France
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Medical Faculty, Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt am Main, D-63450 Hanau, Germany; rolf.teschke@ 123456gmx.de
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: gaby.danan@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +33-613-783-931
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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