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Utilización de un índice pronóstico de morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular asociada con factores de riesgo aterogénico

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      Abstract

      Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de casos y controles, para evaluar la influencia de algunos factores de riesgos aterogénicos en la morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular y establecer a partir de estos un índice sintético para estratificar los grupos de riesgo del daño vasculovisceral. La muestra integrada por 200 pacientes fue seleccionada de forma aleatoria en pacientes ingresados en el Instituto Superior de Medicina Militar "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" durante el año 2000. Se definieron como enfermos a pacientes con diagnóstico inequívoco de enfermedad cardiovascular y controles, a pacientes con características similares a los casos anteriores, excepto no presentar daño vasculovisceral. Al efectuar el análisis de significación estadística, los factores de riesgo aterogénico que permanecieron asociados con la morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular, con un poder predictor independiente, fueron en orden decreciente de razones cruzadas (OR), la hipertensión arterial, la hipercolesterolemia, la diabetes mellitus, el sedentarismo y el hábito de fumar. No mostraron diferencias significativas el estrés, el índice de masa corporal y los antecedentes patológicos personales y familiares. Estas variables integradas en una puntuación sintética fueron estratificadas y comparadas, y mostraron diferencias significativas los casos en relación con los controles, con estimaciones de la probabilidad de enfermar 6,9 veces superiores en el grupo expuesto (estratos 2 y 3), como demostración preliminar del valor discriminativo del índice para la estratificación de la población por grupos de riesgo, el cual puede constituir una alternativa apropiada por su simplicidad, relación costo-beneficio y utilidad para la implementación de estrategias de intervención contra las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en el nivel primario de salud.

      Translated abstract

      An analytical-observational case-control study was carried out to assess the impact of some atherogenic risk factors on morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to set a synthetic indicator for stratifying risk groups of vasculovisceral damage on the basis of such factors. The sample was made up of 200 patients randomly selected from patients admitted at "Dr Luis Díaz Soto" Higher Institute of Military Medicine throughout the year 2000. Patients with unequivocal diagnosis of cardiovascular disease were classified as sick people whereas patients with similar characteristics without vasculo-visceral damage were taken as controls. When making the statistical significance analysis, the risk factors related with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, with independent predictive power, were the following (in decreasing order of odd ratios (OR): blood hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, lack of physical exercising and smoking. Stress, body mass index and personal and family pathological history did not show significant differences. These variables integrated into a synthetic scoring were stratified and compared, and cases showed significant differences with respect to controls. The estimated probabilities of getting sick was 6.9 times higher in the group of exposed people (strata 2 and 3). This was a preliminary proof of the discriminating value of the prognostic index for the stratification of population by risk groups since such an index may be an adequate alternative due to its simplicity, cost-benefit relation and advantages for the implementation of intervention strategies at primary health care level against non-communicable chronic diseases.

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      Most cited references 19

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        Insulin resistance is a common metabolic abnormality that is associated with an increased risk of both atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. The phenotype of insulin resistance includes a dyslipidemia characterized by an elevation of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride, a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the presence of small, triglyceride-enriched low-density lipoproteins. The underlying metabolic abnormality driving this dylipidemia is an increased assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoprotein particles, leading to an increased plasma level of triglyceride. Hypertriglyceridemia, in turn, results in a reduction in the high-density lipoprotein level and the generation of small, dense low-density lipoproteins; these events are mediated by cholesteryl ester transfer protein. In addition, hypertension, obesity, and a prothrombotic state are also integral components of the insulin resistance syndrome. In this review, we will provide a pathophysiologic basis, based on studies on humans and in tissue culture, for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistance. We will also review the effects of insulin resistance on the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. It is hoped that this review will allow health professionals better to evaluate and treat their patients with insulin resistance, thereby reducing the very much increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease carried by these individuals.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] ISMM Dr. Luis Díaz Soto Cuba
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            mil
            Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar
            Rev Cub Med Mil
            ECIMED (Ciudad de la Habana )
            1561-3046
            June 2002
            : 31
            : 2
            : 87-93
            S0138-65572002000200003

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Cuba
            Categories
            MEDICINE, LEGAL
            MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL

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