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      Microbiota, cirrhosis, and the emerging oral-gut-liver axis

      , ,
      JCI Insight
      American Society for Clinical Investigation

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d15453341e122">Cirrhosis is a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality, especially for those at an advanced decompensated stage. Cirrhosis development and progression involves several important interorgan communications, and recently, the gut microbiome has been implicated in pathophysiology of the disease. Dysbiosis, defined as a pathological change in the microbiome, has a variable effect on the compensated versus decompensated stage of cirrhosis. Adverse microbial changes, both in composition and function, can act at several levels within the gut (stool and mucosal) and have also been described in the blood and oral cavity. While dysbiosis in the oral cavity could be a source of systemic inflammation, current cirrhosis treatment modalities are targeted toward the gut-liver axis and do not address the oral microbiome. As interventions designed to modulate oral dysbiosis may delay progression of cirrhosis, a better understanding of this process is of the utmost importance. The concept of oral microbiota dysbiosis in cirrhosis is relatively new; therefore, this review will highlight the emerging role of the oral-gut-liver axis and introduce perspectives for future research. </p>

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          Most cited references65

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          Liver fibrosis.

          Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and often requires liver transplantation. Our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has greatly advanced. Activated hepatic stellate cells, portal fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts of bone marrow origin have been identified as major collagen-producing cells in the injured liver. These cells are activated by fibrogenic cytokines such as TGF-beta1, angiotensin II, and leptin. Reversibility of advanced liver fibrosis in patients has been recently documented, which has stimulated researchers to develop antifibrotic drugs. Emerging antifibrotic therapies are aimed at inhibiting the accumulation of fibrogenic cells and/or preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although many therapeutic interventions are effective in experimental models of liver fibrosis, their efficacy and safety in humans is unknown. This review summarizes recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of liver fibrosis and discusses current antifibrotic strategies.
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            Immunomicrobial pathogenesis of periodontitis: keystones, pathobionts, and host response.

            Recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms underlying the breakdown of periodontal host-microbe homeostasis, which can precipitate dysbiosis and periodontitis in susceptible hosts. Dysbiotic microbial communities of keystone pathogens and pathobionts are thought to exhibit synergistic virulence whereby not only can they endure the host response but can also thrive by exploiting tissue-destructive inflammation, which fuels a self-feeding cycle of escalating dysbiosis and inflammatory bone loss, potentially leading to tooth loss and systemic complications. Here, I discuss new paradigms in our understanding of periodontitis, which may shed light into other polymicrobial inflammatory disorders. In addition, I highlight gaps in knowledge required for an integrated picture of the interplay between microbes and innate and adaptive immune elements that initiate and propagate chronic periodontal inflammation.
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              Modulation of the fecal bile acid profile by gut microbiota in cirrhosis.

              The 7α-dehydroxylation of primary bile acids (BAs), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) into the secondary BAs, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), is a key function of the gut microbiota. We aimed at studying the linkage between fecal BAs and gut microbiota in cirrhosis since this could help understand cirrhosis progression. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by culture-independent multitagged-pyrosequencing, fecal BAs using HPLC and serum BAs using LC-MS in controls, early (Child A) and advanced cirrhotics (Child B/C). A subgroup of early cirrhotics underwent BA and microbiota analysis before/after eight weeks of rifaximin. Cross-sectional: 47 cirrhotics (24 advanced) and 14 controls were included. In feces, advanced cirrhotics had the lowest total, secondary, secondary/primary BA ratios, and the highest primary BAs compared to early cirrhotics and controls. Secondary fecal BAs were detectable in all controls but in a significantly lower proportion of cirrhotics (p<0.002). Serum primary BAs were higher in advanced cirrhotics compared to the rest. Cirrhotics, compared to controls, had a higher Enterobacteriaceae (potentially pathogenic) but lower Lachonospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Blautia (7α-dehydroxylating bacteria) abundance. CDCA was positively correlated with Enterobacteriaceae (r=0.57, p<0.008) while Ruminococcaceae were positively correlated with DCA (r=0.4, p<0.05). A positive correlation between Ruminococcaceae and DCA/CA (r=0.82, p<0.012) and Blautia with LCA/CDCA (r=0.61, p<0.03) was also seen. Prospective study: post-rifaximin, six early cirrhotics had reduction in Veillonellaceae and in secondary/primary BA ratios. Cirrhosis, especially advanced disease, is associated with a decreased conversion of primary to secondary fecal BAs, which is linked to abundance of key gut microbiome taxa. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JCI Insight
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                2379-3708
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                October 5 2017
                : 2
                : 19
                Article
                10.1172/jci.insight.94416
                5841881
                28978799
                ae5e09d3-d6aa-4a3e-9a28-abfa107d4c92
                © 2017
                History

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