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      Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China Translated title: Étude sérologique de l’infection par Neospora caninum chez les chiens dans le centre de la Chine

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          Abstract

          Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176). No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs ( p > 0.05). The infection rate in rural dogs (18%) was higher ( p < 0.05) than in urban dogs (11%). The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased ( p < 0.05) with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs.

          Translated abstract

          Neospora caninum est un protozoaire parasite qui provoque l’avortement chez les bovins ainsi que des problèmes de reproduction et des troubles neurologiques chez les chiens. Les chiens sont importants dans l’épidémiologie de N. caninum parce qu’ils agissent comme hôtes définitifs, qui excrètent des oocystes dans l’environnement. Pour étudier la séroprévalence de l’infection par N. caninum chez les chiens dans le centre de la Chine, 1176 échantillons de sérum ont été prélevés sur les chiens domestiques dans la province du Henan, en Chine centrale, entre Mars 2015 et Février 2016 et testé pour les anticorps IgG contre N. caninum en utilisant le test d’immunofluorescence indirecte (IFAT). La séroprévalence générale contre N. caninum était de 15 % (172/1176). Aucune différence significative n’a été observée pour cette séroprévalence en fonction du sexe et de la race des chiens ( p > 0,05). Le taux d’infection chez les chiens ruraux (18 %) était plus élevé ( p < 0,05) que chez les chiens urbains (11 %). La prévalence de l’infection par N. caninum chez les chiens augmentait ( p < 0,05) avec l’âge. Les résultats de la présente étude indiquent la prévalence élevée des anticorps contre N. caninum chez les chiens dans la province du Henan en Chine centrale. Les conditions sanitaires et la santé animale doivent être améliorées afin d’éviter le risque de transmission de N. caninum par les chiens.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis in animals.

           John Dubey (2003)
          Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite of animals. It is a major pathogen for cattle and dogs and it occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. Domestic dogs are the only known definitive hosts for N. caninum. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasite of cattle and up to 90% of cattle in some herds are infected. Transplacental transmission is considered the major route of transmission of N. caninum in cattle. Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. To elicit protective immunity against abortion in cows that already harbor a latent infection is a major problem. This paper reviews information on biology, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of neosporosis in animals.
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            Coyotes (Canis latrans) are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.

            Four captive-raised coyote pups consumed tissues from Neospora caninum-infected calves. Faeces were examined from 4 days before to 28 days after infection. One pup shed N. caninum-like oocysts, which tested positive for N. caninum and negative for Hammondia heydorni using PCR tests. Coyotes are the second discovered definitive host of N. caninum, after dogs. In North America, the expanding coyote ranges and population increase the probability of contact with domestic livestock. To reduce the risk of transmission of N. caninum to intensively farmed cattle, we recommend protection of feedstuffs using canid-proof fences, and careful disposal of dead stock.
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              Australian dingoes are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.

              To provide objective data on the potential role of dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) in the life cycle of Neospora caninum in Australia, the production of N. caninum oocysts by experimentally infected canids was investigated. Three dingo pups raised in captivity and three domestic dogs were fed tissue from calves infected with an Australian isolate of N. caninum, Nc-Nowra. Oocysts of N. caninum, confirmed by species-specific PCR, were shed in low numbers by one dingo pup at 12-14 days p.i. The remaining animals did not shed oocysts. Furthermore, the blood from two out of three dingoes tested positive for DNA of N. caninum using PCR tests at 14 and 28 days p.i. Oocyst shedding from the intestinal tract of a dingo demonstrates that dingoes are definitive hosts of N. caninum and horizontal transmission of N. caninum from dingoes to farm animals and wildlife may occur in Australia. 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                17 June 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Human Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University Xinxiang Henan 453003 PR China
                [2 ] Xinxiang Assegal Medical Examination Institute Xinxiang Henan 453003 PR China
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite160034 10.1051/parasite/2016025
                10.1051/parasite/2016025
                4912684
                27317461
                © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Article

                central china, neospora caninum, dog, seroprevalence, ifat

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