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      Climatic responses and variability in bark anatomical traits of 23 Picea species


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          In woody plants, bark is an important protective tissue which can participate in photosynthesis, manage water loss, and transport assimilates. Studying the bark anatomical traits can provide insight into plant environmental adaptation strategies. However, a systematic understanding of the variability in bark anatomical traits and their drivers is lacking in woody plants. In this study, the bark anatomical traits of 23 Picea species were determined in a common garden experiment. We analyzed interspecific differences and interpreted the patterns in bark anatomical traits in relation to phylogenetic relationships and climatic factors of each species according to its global distribution. The results showed that there were interspecific differences in bark anatomical traits of Picea species. Phloem thickness was positively correlated with parenchyma cell size, possibly related to the roles of parenchyma cells in the radial transport of assimilates. Sieve cell size was negatively correlated with the radial diameter of resin ducts, and differences in sieve cells were possibly related to the formation and expansion of resin ducts. There were no significant phylogenetic signals for any bark anatomical trait, except the tangential diameter of resin ducts. Phloem thickness and parenchyma cell size were affected by temperature-related factors of their native range, while sieve cell size was influenced by precipitation-related factors. Bark anatomical traits were not significantly different under wet and dry climates. This study makes an important contribution to our understanding of variability in bark anatomical traits among Picea species and their ecological adaptations.

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          Picante is a software package that provides a comprehensive set of tools for analyzing the phylogenetic and trait diversity of ecological communities. The package calculates phylogenetic diversity metrics, performs trait comparative analyses, manipulates phenotypic and phylogenetic data, and performs tests for phylogenetic signal in trait distributions, community structure and species interactions. Picante is a package for the R statistical language and environment written in R and C, released under a GPL v2 open-source license, and freely available on the web (http://picante.r-forge.r-project.org) and from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org).
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            Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional type or biome. Categories along the spectrum would, in general, describe leaf economic variation at the global scale better than plant functional types, because functional types overlap substantially in their leaf traits. Overall, modulation of leaf traits and trait relationships by climate is surprisingly modest, although some striking and significant patterns can be seen. Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate.
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              Phylogenies and the Comparative Method


                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                17 July 2023
                : 14
                : 1201553
                [1] 1 Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Ecology and Nature Conservation Institute, Chinese Academy of Forestry , Beijing, China
                [2] 2 State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry , Beijing, China
                [3] 3 Research Institute of Forestry of Xiaolong Mountain, Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Secondary Forest Cultivation , Tianshui, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Qing-Lai Dang, Lakehead University, Canada

                Reviewed by: Tuula Marketta Jyske, University of Helsinki, Finland; Titus Ambebe, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon; David Law, Lakehead University, Canada

                *Correspondence: Zirui Jia, jiazirui646@ 123456163.com ; Junhui Wang, wangjh@ 123456caf.ac.cn
                Copyright © 2023 Nie, Dong, Liu, Tan, Wang, Yuan, Ma, An, Liu, Xiao, Jiang, Jia and Wang

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 06 April 2023
                : 26 June 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 56, Pages: 13, Words: 7137
                This study was supported by the National Promotion Project of Forestry and Grassland Achievements (2020133110) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31500540).
                Plant Science
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                Functional Plant Ecology

                Plant science & Botany
                bark anatomical traits,climatic response,global distribution,phylogenetic signal,picea


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