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      Ultra-Long GnRH Agonist Protocol During IVF/ICSI Improves Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Adenomyosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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          This study aimed to compare the ultra-long gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) protocol and the long GnRH-a protocol during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm (ICSI) treatment on fertility outcomes in women with adenomyosis.

          Materials and Methods

          This study was a retrospective cohort study. From January 2011 to May 2018, a total of 371 fresh IVF/ICSI cycles were included. Among the cycles included, 237 cycles of 212 women underwent the ultra-long GnRH-a protocol, while 134 cycles of 116 women underwent the long GnRH-a protocol. The rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer, live birth, and early miscarriage were estimated between the compared protocols.


          In the study, the early miscarriage rate in women undergoing the ultra-long GnRH-a protocol was significantly lower than those undergoing the long GnRH-a protocol (12.0% versus 26.5%, p = 0.045), whereas the differences in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth in women between the two groups showed no statistical significance. The pregnancy outcomes were also sub-analyzed according to the adenomyotic region (diffuse and focal). As for diffuse adenomyosis, the rates of clinical pregnancy and live birth in women undergoing the ultra-long GnRH-a protocol were significantly higher than those undergoing the long GnRH-a protocol (55.3% versus 37.9%, p = 0.025; 43.4% versus 25.9%, p = 0.019, respectively). However, pregnancy outcomes showed no difference between the two protocols in women with focal adenomyosis.


          The ultra-long GnRH-a protocol during IVF/ICSI improves pregnancy outcomes in women with adenomyosis, especially in women with diffuse adenomyosis when compared with the long GnRH-a protocol.

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          Most cited references 46

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          ESHRE guideline: management of women with endometriosis.

          What is the optimal management of women with endometriosis based on the best available evidence in the literature? Using the structured methodology of the Manual for ESHRE Guideline Development, 83 recommendations were formulated that answered the 22 key questions on optimal management of women with endometriosis. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis (2005) has been a reference point for best clinical care in endometriosis for years, but this guideline was in need of updating. This guideline was produced by a group of experts in the field using the methodology of the Manual for ESHRE Guideline Development, including a thorough systematic search of the literature, quality assessment of the included papers up to January 2012 and consensus within the guideline group on all recommendations. To ensure input from women with endometriosis, a patient representative was part of the guideline development group. In addition, patient and additional clinical input was collected during the scoping and review phase of the guideline. NA. The guideline provides 83 recommendations on diagnosis of endometriosis and on the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain and infertility, on the management of women in whom the disease is found incidentally (without pain or infertility), on prevention of recurrence of disease and/or painful symptoms, on treatment of menopausal symptoms in patients with a history of endometriosis and on the possible association of endometriosis and malignancy. We identified several areas in care of women with endometriosis for which robust evidence is lacking. These areas were addressed by formulating good practice points (GPP), based on the expert opinion of the guideline group members. Since 32 out of the 83 recommendations for the management of women with endometriosis could not be based on high level evidence and therefore were GPP, the guideline group formulated research recommendations to guide future research with the aim of increasing the body of evidence. The guideline was developed and funded by ESHRE, covering expenses associated with the guideline meetings, with the literature searches and with the implementation of the guideline. The guideline group members did not receive payment. All guideline group members disclosed any relevant conflicts of interest (see Conflicts of interest). NA.
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            Terms, definitions and measurements to describe sonographic features of myometrium and uterine masses: a consensus opinion from the Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment (MUSA) group.

            The MUSA (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment) statement is a consensus statement on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe and report the sonographic features of the myometrium using gray-scale sonography, color/power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. The terms and definitions described may form the basis for prospective studies to predict the risk of different myometrial pathologies, based on their ultrasound appearance, and thus should be relevant for the clinician in daily practice and for clinical research. The sonographic features and use of terminology for describing the two most common myometrial lesions (fibroids and adenomyosis) and uterine smooth muscle tumors are presented.
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              Adenomyosis and subfertility: a systematic review of prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and fertility outcomes.

              Uterine adenomyosis was initially thought to be found only in parous women, and final diagnosis was made at histology after hysterectomy. With better imaging techniques and with women attending clinics at older ages, adenomyosis is diagnosed with increasing frequency in women attending infertility clinics. A dozen conservative interventions have been advocated, with variable reports of their impact on fertility. This presents a dilemma for clinicians managing such patients. Hence, this systematic review of adenomyosis was performed to determine (i) the prevalence in a subfertile population, (ii) the accuracy of diagnostic tests, (iii) the efficacy of fertility sparing treatment options and (iv) the reproductive and obstetric/perinatal outcomes in women with adenomyosis.

                Author and article information

                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                31 May 2021
                : 12
                1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Reproductive Medicine Center, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou, China
                2 Reproductive Medicine Center, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University , Shenzhen, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Claus Yding Andersen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

                Reviewed by: Yang Jian Zhi, Tongji University, China; Renato Fraietta, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

                *Correspondence: Qingxue Zhang, zhqingx@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Reproduction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Copyright © 2021 Lan, Wu, Wu, Wu, Yang, Liu, Lin, Jiao and Zhang

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 7, Words: 4049
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province 10.13039/501100003453
                Original Research


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