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      Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.

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      Psychological Review

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.

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          Most cited references 187

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          The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism.

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            A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

             C Steele (1997)
            A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
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              Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Review
                Psychological Review
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1471
                0033-295X
                2002
                2002
                : 109
                : 3
                : 573-598
                Article
                10.1037/0033-295X.109.3.573
                12088246
                © 2002

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