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      Remediation potential of early successional pioneer species Chenopodium album and Tripleurospermum inodorum

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      Nature Conservation

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Remediation with plants is a technology used to decrease soil or water contamination. In this study we assessed the remediation potential of two weed species (Chenopodium album and Tripleurospermum inodorum) in a moderately metal-contaminated area. Metal concentrations were studied in roots, stems and leaves, in order to assess correlations in metal concentrations between those in soil and plants. Furthermore, we calculated bioaccumulation factor (BAF), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) values to study the accumulation of metals from soil to plants and translocation within plants. We found correlation in metal concentrations between soil and plants. The metal accumulation potential was low in both species, indicating low BAF and BCF values. In contrast, high TF values were found for Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn, Ba, Fe, Cu and Pb in C. album, and for Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Sr in T. inodorum. Our results demonstrated that the potential of C. album and T. inodorum might be limited in phytoextraction processes; however, when accumulated, metals are successfully transported to aboveground plant organs. Thus, to achieve the efficient remediation of metal-contaminated soils, removal of the aboveground plant organs is recommended, by which soil disturbance can also be avoided.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Phytoremediation.

          Phytoremediation, the use of plants and their associated microbes for environmental cleanup, has gained acceptance in the past 10 years as a cost-effective, noninvasive alternative or complementary technology for engineering-based remediation methods. Plants can be used for pollutant stabilization, extraction, degradation, or volatilization. These different phytoremediation technologies are reviewed here, including their applicability for various organic and inorganic pollutants, and most suitable plant species. To further enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation, there is a need for better knowledge of the processes that affect pollutant availability, rhizosphere processes, pollutant uptake, translocation, chelation, degradation, and volatilization. For each of these processes I review what is known so far for inorganic and organic pollutants, the remaining gaps in our knowledge, and the practical implications for designing phytoremediation strategies. Transgenic approaches to enhance these processes are also reviewed and discussed.
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            Lead toxicity in plants

            Contamination of soils by heavy metals is of widespread occurrence as a result of human, agricultural and industrial activities. Among heavy metals, lead is a potential pollutant that readily accumulates in soils and sediments. Although lead is not an essential element for plants, it gets easily absorbed and accumulated in different plant parts. Uptake of Pb in plants is regulated by pH, particle size and cation exchange capacity of the soils as well as by root exudation and other physico-chemical parameters. Excess Pb causes a number of toxicity symptoms in plants e.g. stunted growth, chlorosis and blackening of root system. Pb inhibits photosynthesis, upsets mineral nutrition and water balance, changes hormonal status and affects membrane structure and permeability. This review addresses various morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of Pb toxicity and also strategies adopted by plants for Pb-detoxification and developing tolerance to Pb. Mechanisms of Pb-detoxification include sequestration of Pb in the vacuole, phytochelatin synthesis and binding to glutathione and aminoacids etc. Pb tolerance is associated with the capacity of plants to restrict Pb to the cell walls, synthesis of osmolytes and activation of antioxidant defense system. Remediation of soils contaminated with Pb using phytoremediation and rhizofiltration technologies appear to have great potential for cleaning of Pb-contaminated soils.
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              Challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: A review.

              Mining operations, industrial production and domestic and agricultural use of metal and metal containing compound have resulted in the release of toxic metals into the environment. Metal pollution has serious implications for the human health and the environment. Few heavy metals are toxic and lethal in trace concentrations and can be teratogenic, mutagenic, endocrine disruptors while others can cause behavioral and neurological disorders among infants and children. Therefore, remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil could be the only effective option to reduce the negative effects on ecosystem health. Thus, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to review the current status, challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation for remediating heavy metals from contaminated soils. The prime focus is given to phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most promising and alternative methods for soil reclamation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Conservation
                NC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-3301
                1314-6947
                August 05 2019
                August 05 2019
                : 36
                : 47-69
                Article
                10.3897/natureconservation.36.32503
                © 2019

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