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      The cell biology of fat expansion

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          Abstract

          Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity.

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          Most cited references 121

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          Metabolic dysregulation and adipose tissue fibrosis: role of collagen VI.

          Adipocytes are embedded in a unique extracellular matrix whose main function is to provide mechanical support, in addition to participating in a variety of signaling events. During adipose tissue expansion, the extracellular matrix requires remodeling to accommodate adipocyte growth. Here, we demonstrate a general upregulation of several extracellular matrix components in adipose tissue in the diabetic state, therefore implicating "adipose tissue fibrosis" as a hallmark of metabolically challenged adipocytes. Collagen VI is a highly enriched extracellular matrix component of adipose tissue. The absence of collagen VI results in the uninhibited expansion of individual adipocytes and is paradoxically associated with substantial improvements in whole-body energy homeostasis, both with high-fat diet exposure and in the ob/ob background. Collectively, our data suggest that weakening the extracellular scaffold of adipocytes enables their stress-free expansion during states of positive energy balance, which is consequently associated with an improved inflammatory profile. Therefore, the disproportionate accumulation of extracellular matrix components in adipose tissue may not be merely an epiphenomenon of metabolically challenging conditions but may also directly contribute to a failure to expand adipose tissue mass during states of excess caloric intake.
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            Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha induces fibrosis and insulin resistance in white adipose tissue.

            Adipose tissue can undergo rapid expansion during times of excess caloric intake. Like a rapidly expanding tumor mass, obese adipose tissue becomes hypoxic due to the inability of the vasculature to keep pace with tissue growth. Consequently, during the early stages of obesity, hypoxic conditions cause an increase in the level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) expression. Using a transgenic model of overexpression of a constitutively active form of HIF1alpha, we determined that HIF1alpha fails to induce the expected proangiogenic response. In contrast, we observed that HIF1alpha initiates adipose tissue fibrosis, with an associated increase in local inflammation. "Trichrome- and picrosirius red-positive streaks," enriched in fibrillar collagens, are a hallmark of adipose tissue suffering from the early stages of hypoxia-induced fibrosis. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a transcriptional target of HIF1alpha and acts by cross-linking collagen I and III to form the fibrillar collagen fibers. Inhibition of LOX activity by beta-aminoproprionitrile treatment results in a significant improvement in several metabolic parameters and further reduces local adipose tissue inflammation. Collectively, our observations are consistent with a model in which adipose tissue hypoxia serves as an early upstream initiator for adipose tissue dysfunction by inducing a local state of fibrosis.
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              Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver.

               Y. Kim,  Kwang Kim,  E Hadro (2001)
              The earliest defect in developing type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, characterized by decreased glucose transport and metabolism in muscle and adipocytes. The glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and muscle by rapidly moving from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane. In insulin-resistant states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, GLUT4 expression is decreased in adipose tissue but preserved in muscle. Because skeletal muscle is the main site of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the role of adipose tissue GLUT4 downregulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes is unclear. To determine the role of adipose GLUT4 in glucose homeostasis, we used Cre/loxP DNA recombination to generate mice with adipose-selective reduction of GLUT4 (G4A-/-). Here we show that these mice have normal growth and adipose mass despite markedly impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Although GLUT4 expression is preserved in muscle, these mice develop insulin resistance in muscle and liver, manifested by decreased biological responses and impaired activation of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase. G4A-/- mice develop glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia. Thus, downregulation of GLUT4 and glucose transport selectively in adipose tissue can cause insulin resistance and thereby increase the risk of developing diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                J. Cell Biol
                jcb
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                2 March 2015
                : 208
                : 5
                : 501-512
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine , and [2 ]Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Philipp E. Scherer: philipp.scherer@ 123456utsouthwestern.edu
                Article
                201409063
                10.1083/jcb.201409063
                4347644
                25733711
                © 2015 Rutkowski et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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                Beyond the cell

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