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      A Physiologically Based Approach To the Study of Bisphenol a and Other Estrogenic Chemicals On the Size of Reproductive Organs, Daily Sperm Production, and Behavior

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          Most cited references 47

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          The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily.

           Ronald Evans (1988)
          Analyses of steroid receptors are important for understanding molecular details of transcriptional control, as well as providing insight as to how an individual transacting factor contributes to cell identity and function. These studies have led to the identification of a superfamily of regulatory proteins that include receptors for thyroid hormone and the vertebrate morphogen retinoic acid. Although animals employ complex and often distinct ways to control their physiology and development, the discovery of receptor-related molecules in a wide range of species suggests that mechanisms underlying morphogenesis and homeostasis may be more ubiquitous than previously expected.
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            Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist.

            The increase in the number of reports of abnormalities in male sex development in wildlife and humans coincided with the introduction of 'oestrogenic' chemicals such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into the environment. Although these phenotypic alterations are thought to be mediated by the oestrogen receptor, they are also consistent with inhibition of androgen receptor-mediated events. Here we report that the major and persistent DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene), has little ability to bind the oestrogen receptor, but inhibits androgen binding to the androgen receptor, androgen-induced transcriptional activity, and androgen action in developing, pubertal and adult male rats. The results suggest that abnormalities in male sex development induced by p,p'-DDE and related environmental chemicals may be mediated at the level of the androgen receptor.
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              Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans.

              We present data showing that some foods preserved in lacquer-coated cans and the liquid in them may acquire estrogenic activity. Hormonal activity was measured using the E-screen bioassay. The biological activity of vegetables packed in cans was a result of plastic monomers used in manufacturing the containers. The plastic monomer bisphenol-A, identified by mass spectrometry, was found as a contaminant not only in the liquid of the preserved vegetables but also in water autoclaved in the cans. The amount of bisphenol-A in the extracts accounted for all the hormonal activity measured. Although the presence of other xenoestrogens cannot be ruled out, it is apparent that all estrogenic activity in these cans was due to bisphenol-A leached from the lacquer coating. The use of plastic in food-packaging materials may require closer scrutiny to determine whether epoxy resins and polycarbonates contribute to human exposure to xenoestrogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 6.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxicology and Industrial Health
                Toxicol Ind Health
                SAGE Publications
                0748-2337
                1477-0393
                June 30 2016
                June 30 2016
                : 14
                : 1-2
                : 239-260
                Article
                10.1177/074823379801400115
                © 2016

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