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      Mechanisms of ROS Regulation of Plant Development and Stress Responses


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          Plants are subjected to various environmental stresses throughout their life cycle. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in maintaining normal plant growth, and improving their tolerance to stress. This review describes the production and removal of ROS in plants, summarizes recent progress in understanding the role of ROS during plant vegetative apical meristem development, organogenesis, and abiotic stress responses, and some novel findings in recent years are discussed. More importantly, interplay between ROS and epigenetic modifications in regulating gene expression is specifically discussed. To summarize, plants integrate ROS with genetic, epigenetic, hormones and external signals to promote development and environmental adaptation.

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          Heat tolerance in plants: An overview

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            Specific aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of hydrogen peroxide across membranes.

            The metabolism of aerobic organisms continuously produces reactive oxygen species. Although potentially toxic, these compounds also function in signaling. One important feature of signaling compounds is their ability to move between different compartments, e.g. to cross membranes. Here we present evidence that aquaporins can channel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Twenty-four aquaporins from plants and mammals were screened in five yeast strains differing in sensitivity toward oxidative stress. Expression of human AQP8 and plant Arabidopsis TIP1;1 and TIP1;2 in yeast decreased growth and survival in the presence of H2O2. Further evidence for aquaporin-mediated H2O2 diffusion was obtained by a fluorescence assay with intact yeast cells using an intracellular reactive oxygen species-sensitive fluorescent dye. Application of silver ions (Ag+), which block aquaporin-mediated water diffusion in a fast kinetics swelling assay, also reversed both the aquaporin-dependent growth repression and the H2O2-induced fluorescence. Our results present the first molecular genetic evidence for the diffusion of H2O2 through specific members of the aquaporin family.
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              Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in many places in living cells and at an increased rate during biotic or abiotic stress. ROS and RNS participate in signal transduction, but also modify cellular components and cause damage. We first look at the most common ROS and their properties. We then consider the ways in which the cell can regulate their production and removal. We critically assess current knowledge about modifications of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), DNA, carbohydrates, and proteins and illustrate this knowledge with case stories wherever possible. Some oxidative breakdown products, e.g., from PUFA, can cause secondary damage. Other oxidation products are secondary signaling molecules. We consider the fate of the modified components, the energetic costs to the cell of replacing such components, as well as strategies to minimize transfer of oxidatively damaged components to the next generation.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                25 June 2019
                : 10
                : 800
                [1] 1National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan, China
                [2] 2College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ming Luo, South China Botanical Garden (CAS), China

                Reviewed by: Shengchun Zhang, South China Normal University, China; Limin Pi, Wuhan University, China; William Bryan Terzaghi, Wilkes University, United States

                *Correspondence: Yu Zhao, zhaoyu@ 123456mail.hzau.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Plant Development and EvoDevo, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2019 Huang, Ullah, Zhou, Yi and Zhao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 05 December 2018
                : 03 June 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 96, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Plant Science

                Plant science & Botany
                ros,plant development,stress response,epigenetic modification,regulatory mechanism


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