In 1984, Bychkov and Rashba introduced a simple form of spin-orbit coupling to explain certain peculiarities in the electron spin resonance of two-dimensional semiconductors. Over the past thirty years, similar ideas have been leading to a vast number of predictions, discoveries, and innovative concepts far beyond semiconductors. The past decade has been particularly creative with the realizations of means to manipulate spin orientation by moving electrons in space, controlling electron trajectories using spin as a steering wheel, and with the discovery of new topological classes of materials. These developments reinvigorated the interest of physicists and materials scientists in the development of inversion asymmetric structures ranging from layered graphene-like materials to cold atoms. This review presents the most remarkable recent and ongoing realizations of Rashba physics in condensed matter and beyond.