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      Blood management of staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty in a single hospitalization period

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          Few literatures have studied the blood management in patients treated with staged bilateral primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a single hospitalization period. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the newly introduced multimodal blood management (MBM) in these patients.

          Materials and methods

          We retrospectively compared the perioperative parameters in 70 cases undergoing staged bilateral primary TKA in a single hospitalization period from 2012–2013 in a single center with two different groups of patients, allocating cases to the group with the newly introduced MBM (Group A, n =33) and controls to the group without the newly introduced MBM (Group B, n =37). The newly introduced MBM protocols include preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) evaluation, high protein diet, tourniquet release after skin closure, preoperative oral iron treatment and femoral canal obturation, and one dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) IV with another one if necessary. While in the control group, only routine blood-saving techniques were used.


          Group A had a transfusion rate of 9% (3/33), whereas 32.4% of patients (12/37) in Group B received allogenic blood transfusion. Significant benefits were also found in Group A in terms of postoperative Hb and hematocrit (Hct), reduction of postoperative pain, swelling, postoperative pain, length of stays, and hospital costs. No deep vein thrombosis (DVT) events were found in all these patients.


          The newly introduced MBM in staged bilateral TKA in a single hospitalization period can reduce blood loss effectively as well as pain and knee joint swelling instead of leading to increased complications and result in significant cost savings.

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          Most cited references 19

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          An analysis of blood management in patients having a total hip or knee arthroplasty.

          Three hundred and thirty orthopaedic surgeons in the United States participated in a study of transfusion requirements associated with total joint arthroplasty. A total of 9482 patients (3920 patients who had a total hip replacement and 5562 patients who had a total knee replacement) were evaluated prospectively from September 1996 through June 1997. Of those patients, 4409 (46 percent [57 percent of the patients who had a hip replacement and 39 percent of the patients who had a knee replacement]) had a blood transfusion. Two thousand eight hundred and ninety patients (66 percent) received autologous blood, and 1519 patients (34 percent) received allogenic blood. Ordered logistic regression analysis showed the most important predictors of the transfusion of allogenic blood to be a low baseline hemoglobin level and a lack of predonated autologous blood. Preoperative donation of autologous blood decreases the risk of transfusion of allogenic blood; however, inefficiencies in the procedures for obtaining autologous blood were identified. Sixty-one percent (5741) of the patients had predonated blood for autologous transfusion, but 4464 (45 percent) of the 9920 units of the predonated autologous blood were not used. Primary procedures and revision total knee arthroplasty were associated with the greatest number of wasted autologous units. Of the 5741 patients who had predonated blood, 503 (9 percent) needed a transfusion of allogenic blood. The frequency of allogenic blood transfusion varied with respect to the type of operative procedure (revision total hip arthroplasty and bilateral total knee arthroplasty were associated with the highest prevalence of such transfusions) and with a baseline hemoglobin level of 130 grams per liter or less. Transfusion of allogenic blood was also associated with infection (p < or = 0.001), fluid overload (p < or = 0.001), and increased duration of hospitalization (p < or = 0.01). These latter findings warrant further evaluation in controlled studies.
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            Tranexamic acid in total knee replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) upon blood loss and transfusion in primary total knee replacement. The review used the generic evaluation tool designed by the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. A total of 19 trials were eligible: 18 used intravenous administration, one also evaluated oral dosing and one trial evaluated topical use. TXA led to a significant reduction in the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 3.1, p 4 g) TXA showed a plausible consistent reduction in blood transfusion requirements (RR 5.33; 95% CI 2.44 to 11.65, p < 0.001; I(2) = 0%), a finding that should be confirmed by a further well-designed trial. The current evidence from trials does not support an increased risk of deep-vein thrombosis (13 trials, 801 patients) or pulmonary embolism (18 trials, 971 patients) due to TXA administration.
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              Effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

              Total knee arthroplasty is associated with substantial blood loss and the risks of transfusion. Conflicting reports have been published regarding the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing postoperative blood loss in total knee arthroplasty. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing postoperative blood loss in total knee arthroplasty. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness and safety of using tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty. Randomized controlled trials that had been published before May 2011 were retrieved, and fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The weighted mean difference in blood loss, number of transfusions per patient, prothrombin time, and postoperative activated partial thromboplastin time and the summary odds ratio of transfusion, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism were calculated in the group of patients who received tranexamic acid and the group of patients who received a placebo. The amount of blood loss and the number of blood transfusions per patient were significantly less and the proportion of patients who required a blood transfusion was smaller in the tranexamic acid group compared with the placebo group. No significant difference in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism was detected between the tranexamic acid group and the placebo group. The meta-analysis shows that the use of tranexamic acid for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty is effective and safe for the reduction of blood loss.

                Author and article information

                J Orthop Surg Res
                J Orthop Surg Res
                Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                13 November 2014
                13 November 2014
                : 9
                : 1
                Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Wainan Guoxue Road, Chengdu, 610041 People’s Republic of China
                © Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                blood loss, transfusion, bilateral, multimodal blood management, tranexamic acid


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