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      IL-25 augments type 2 immune responses by enhancing the expansion and functions of TSLP-DC–activated Th2 memory cells


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          Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell–mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2 memory cells expressing distinctive levels of IL-25 receptor (R) are one of the responding cell types. IL-25 promotes cell expansion and Th2 cytokine production when Th2 central memory cells are stimulated with thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)–activated dendritic cells (DCs), homeostatic cytokines, or T cell receptor for antigen triggering. The enhanced functions of Th2 memory cells induced by IL-25 are associated with sustained expression of GATA-3, c-MAF, and JunB in an IL-4–independent manner. Although keratinocytes, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils express IL-25 transcripts, activated eosinophils and basophils from normal and atopic subjects were found to secrete bioactive IL-25 protein, which augments the functions of Th2 memory cells. Elevated expression of IL-25 and IL-25R transcripts was observed in asthmatic lung tissues and atopic dermatitis skin lesions, linking their possible roles with exacerbated allergic disorders. Our results provide a plausible explanation that IL-25 produced by innate effector eosinophils and basophils may augment the allergic inflammation by enhancing the maintenance and functions of adaptive Th2 memory cells.

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          Most cited references 29

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          IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo.

          We have characterized a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, designated as IL-25. Infusion of mice with IL-25 induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression. The induction of these cytokines resulted in Th2-like responses marked by increased serum IgE, IgG(1), and IgA levels, blood eosinophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs and digestive tract that included eosinophilic infiltrates, increased mucus production, and epithelial cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy. In addition, our studies show that IL-25 induces Th2-type cytokine production by accessory cells that are MHC class II(high), CD11c(dull), and lineage(-). These results suggest that IL-25, derived from Th2 T cells, is capable of amplifying allergic type inflammatory responses by its actions on other cell types.
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            TSLP-activated dendritic cells induce an inflammatory T helper type 2 cell response through OX40 ligand

            We recently showed that dendritic cells (DCs) activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) prime naive CD4 + T cells to differentiate into T helper type 2 (Th2) cells that produced high amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but no interleukin (IL)-10. Here we report that TSLP induced human DCs to express OX40 ligand (OX40L) but not IL-12. TSLP-induced OX40L on DCs was required for triggering naive CD4 + T cells to produce IL-4, -5, and -13. We further revealed the following three novel functional properties of OX40L: (a) OX40L selectively promoted TNF-α, but inhibited IL-10 production in developing Th2 cells; (b) OX40L lost the ability to polarize Th2 cells in the presence of IL-12; and (c) OX40L exacerbated IL-12–induced Th1 cell inflammation by promoting TNF-α, while inhibiting IL-10. We conclude that OX40L on TSLP-activated DCs triggers Th2 cell polarization in the absence of IL-12, and propose that OX40L can switch IL-10–producing regulatory Th cell responses into TNF-α–producing inflammatory Th cell responses.
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              Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25–dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion

              Type 2 immunity, which involves coordinated regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, can protect against helminth parasite infection, but may lead to allergy and asthma after inappropriate activation. We demonstrate that il25−/− mice display inefficient Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion and delayed cytokine production by T helper 2 cells. We further establish a key role for interleukin (IL)-25 in regulating a novel population of IL-4–, IL-5–, IL-13–producing non–B/non–T (NBNT), c-kit+, FcɛR1− cells during helminth infection. A deficit in this population in il25−/− mice correlates with inefficient N. brasiliensis expulsion. In contrast, administration of recombinant IL-25 in vivo induces the appearance of NBNT, c-kit+, FcɛR1− cells and leads to rapid worm expulsion that is T and B cell independent, but type 2 cytokine dependent. We demonstrate that these IL-25–regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                6 August 2007
                : 204
                : 8
                : 1837-1847
                [1 ]Department of Immunology and Center of Cancer Immunology Research, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030
                [2 ]Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, MRC-Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, England, UK
                [3 ]Tanox, Inc., Houston, TX 77025
                [4 ]Department of Medicine and Department of Immunology, Biology of Inflammation Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030
                [5 ]Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathum-thani 12121, Thailand
                [6 ]Department of Dermatology, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
                [7 ]University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77225
                Author notes

                CORRESPONDENCE Yong-Jun Liu: yjliu@ 123456mdanderson.org

                Copyright © 2007, The Rockefeller University Press



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