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      Spontaneous Nocturnal Leptin Secretion in Children with Myelomeningocele and Growth Hormone Deficiency

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          Abstract

          Objective: To examine the spontaneous leptin secretion in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Methods: Serum leptin levels were studied in 10 prepubertal MMC patients with GHD (CA 6.2 ± 0.5 years), 10 patients with idiopathic GHD (IGHD; CA 7.6 ± 0.7 years) and 12 children with normal variant short stature (NVSS; CA 7.6 ± 0.5 years). Mean BMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>) values of the groups did not differ significantly. Nocturnal leptin levels were analyzed over 10 h (blood samples every 20 min) and measured by specific radioimmunoassay. Results: Mean leptin concentrations did not correlate with BMI in MMC patients. Nocturnal leptin secretion of MMC patients was significantly different to those of children with IGHD and NVSS. Morning leptin levels did not decline as observed in both other groups. Conclusion: Since all groups were matched for BMI values, we suggest a hypothalamic dysregulation of leptin secretion in MMC patients.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Cerebrospinal fluid leptin levels: relationship to plasma levels and to adiposity in humans.

          The adipocyte hormone, leptin (OB protein), is proposed to be an "adiposity signal" that acts in the brain to lower food intake and adiposity. As plasma leptin levels are elevated in most overweight individuals, obesity may be associated with leptin resistance. To investigate the mechanisms underlying brain leptin uptake and to determine whether reduced uptake may contribute to leptin resistance, we measured immunoreactive leptin levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 53 human subjects. Leptin concentrations in CSF were strongly correlated to the plasma level in a nonlinear manner (r = 0.92; p = 0.0001). Like levels in plasma, CSF leptin levels were correlated to body mass index (r = 0.43; p = 0.001), demonstrating that plasma leptin enters human cerebrospinal fluid in proportion to body adiposity. However, the efficiency of this uptake (measured as the CSF:plasma leptin ratio) was lower among those in the highest as compared with the lowest plasma leptin quintile (5.4-fold difference). We hypothesize that a saturable mechanism mediates CSF leptin transport, and that reduced efficiency of brain leptin delivery among obese individuals with high plasma leptin levels results in apparent leptin resistance.
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            Design and synthesis of multi-haem proteins.

            A water-soluble, 62-residue, di-alpha-helical peptide has been synthesized which accommodates two bis-histidyl haem groups. The peptide assembles into a four-helix dimer with 2-fold symmetry and four parallel haems that closely resemble native haems in their spectral and electrochemical properties, including haem-haem redox interaction. This protein is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of molecular 'maquettes', a novel class of simplified versions of the metalloproteins involved in redox catalysis and in energy conversion in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer.
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              Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2002
                2002
                04 September 2002
                : 58
                : 3
                : 115-119
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
                Article
                63580 Horm Res 2002;58:115–119
                10.1159/000063580
                12218376
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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