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      Spontaneous Nocturnal Leptin Secretion in Children with Myelomeningocele and Growth Hormone Deficiency

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          Objective: To examine the spontaneous leptin secretion in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Methods: Serum leptin levels were studied in 10 prepubertal MMC patients with GHD (CA 6.2 ± 0.5 years), 10 patients with idiopathic GHD (IGHD; CA 7.6 ± 0.7 years) and 12 children with normal variant short stature (NVSS; CA 7.6 ± 0.5 years). Mean BMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>) values of the groups did not differ significantly. Nocturnal leptin levels were analyzed over 10 h (blood samples every 20 min) and measured by specific radioimmunoassay. Results: Mean leptin concentrations did not correlate with BMI in MMC patients. Nocturnal leptin secretion of MMC patients was significantly different to those of children with IGHD and NVSS. Morning leptin levels did not decline as observed in both other groups. Conclusion: Since all groups were matched for BMI values, we suggest a hypothalamic dysregulation of leptin secretion in MMC patients.

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          Cerebrospinal fluid leptin levels: relationship to plasma levels and to adiposity in humans.

          The adipocyte hormone, leptin (OB protein), is proposed to be an "adiposity signal" that acts in the brain to lower food intake and adiposity. As plasma leptin levels are elevated in most overweight individuals, obesity may be associated with leptin resistance. To investigate the mechanisms underlying brain leptin uptake and to determine whether reduced uptake may contribute to leptin resistance, we measured immunoreactive leptin levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 53 human subjects. Leptin concentrations in CSF were strongly correlated to the plasma level in a nonlinear manner (r = 0.92; p = 0.0001). Like levels in plasma, CSF leptin levels were correlated to body mass index (r = 0.43; p = 0.001), demonstrating that plasma leptin enters human cerebrospinal fluid in proportion to body adiposity. However, the efficiency of this uptake (measured as the CSF:plasma leptin ratio) was lower among those in the highest as compared with the lowest plasma leptin quintile (5.4-fold difference). We hypothesize that a saturable mechanism mediates CSF leptin transport, and that reduced efficiency of brain leptin delivery among obese individuals with high plasma leptin levels results in apparent leptin resistance.
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            Design and synthesis of multi-haem proteins.

            A water-soluble, 62-residue, di-alpha-helical peptide has been synthesized which accommodates two bis-histidyl haem groups. The peptide assembles into a four-helix dimer with 2-fold symmetry and four parallel haems that closely resemble native haems in their spectral and electrochemical properties, including haem-haem redox interaction. This protein is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of molecular 'maquettes', a novel class of simplified versions of the metalloproteins involved in redox catalysis and in energy conversion in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer.
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              Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance


                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                04 September 2002
                : 58
                : 3
                : 115-119
                Department of Pediatrics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
                63580 Horm Res 2002;58:115–119
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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