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      Mineralogy of the Martian Surface

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      Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences

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          Global mineralogical and aqueous mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data.

          Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are found in the oldest terrains; sulfates were formed in a second era (the "theiikian" era) in an acidic environment. Beginning about 3.5 billion years ago, the last era (the "siderikian") is dominated by the formation of anhydrous ferric oxides in a slow superficial weathering, without liquid water playing a major role across the planet.
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            Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results

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              Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate.

              The recent identification of large deposits of sulphates by remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on the basis of observations by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board the Mars Express spacecraft. These minerals are mainly associated with Noachian outcrops, which is consistent with an early active hydrological system, sustaining the long-term contact of igneous minerals with liquid water. We infer that the two main families of hydrated alteration products detected-phyllosilicates and sulphates--result from different formation processes. These occurred during two distinct climatic episodes: an early Noachian Mars, resulting in the formation of hydrated silicates, followed by a more acidic environment, in which sulphates formed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
                Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.
                Annual Reviews
                0084-6597
                1545-4495
                May 30 2014
                May 30 2014
                : 42
                : 1
                : 291-315
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-055024
                © 2014

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