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      Hot and Hypoxic Environments Inhibit Simulated Soccer Performance and Exacerbate Performance Decrements When Combined

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          The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP), and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorized treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarization sessions and four randomized crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18°C 50% rH), HOT (30°C; 50% rH), HYP (1000 m; 18°C 50% rH), and HH (1000 m; 30°C; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin, and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (S aO 2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate, and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (−4%), High-speed distance (~−8%), and variable run distance (~−12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (−9%), high-speed distance (−15%), and variable run distance (−15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged ( p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (−8%) compared with CON. Body mass (−2%), temperatures (+2–5%), and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, S aO 2 (−8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS, and S aO 2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate ( p < 0.001) and plasma volume ( p < 0.001) were only significantly altered in HH. Perceived exertion was elevated ( p < 0.05) by 7% in all conditions compared with CON. Regression analysis identified that absolute TS and absolute rise in skin and estimated muscle temperature ( r = 0.82, r = 0.84 r = 0.82, respectively; p < 0.05) predicted the hot-mediated-decrements in HOT. The hot, hypoxic, and hot-hypoxic environments impaired physical performance during iSPT. Future interventions should address the increases in TS and body temperatures, to attenuate these decrements on soccer performance.

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          American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement.

          This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at least several hours before the activity to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) dehydration and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. Because there is considerable variability in sweating rates and sweat electrolyte content between individuals, customized fluid replacement programs are recommended. Individual sweat rates can be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. During exercise, consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can provide benefits over water alone under certain circumstances. After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited.
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            A stagewise rejective multiple test procedure based on a modified Bonferroni test

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              Fatigue in soccer: a brief review.

              This review describes when fatigue may develop during soccer games and the potential physiological mechanisms that cause fatigue in soccer. According to time-motion analyses and performance measures during match-play, fatigue or reduced performance seems to occur at three different stages in the game: (1) after short-term intense periods in both halves; (2) in the initial phase of the second half; and (3) towards the end of the game. Temporary fatigue after periods of intense exercise in the game does not appear to be linked directly to muscle glycogen concentration, lactate accumulation, acidity or the breakdown of creatine phosphate. Instead, it may be related to disturbances in muscle ion homeostasis and an impaired excitation of the sarcolemma. Soccer players' ability to perform maximally is inhibited in the initial phase of the second half, which may be due to lower muscle temperatures compared with the end of the first half. Thus, when players perform low-intensity activities in the interval between the two halves, both muscle temperature and performance are preserved. Several studies have shown that fatigue sets in towards the end of a game, which may be caused by low glycogen concentrations in a considerable number of individual muscle fibres. In a hot and humid environment, dehydration and a reduced cerebral function may also contribute to the deterioration in performance. In conclusion, fatigue or impaired performance in soccer occurs during various phases in a game, and different physiological mechanisms appear to operate in different periods of a game.

                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                12 January 2016
                : 6
                1Department of Sport Science and Physical Activity, Institute of Sport and Physical Activity Research, University of Bedfordshire Bedford, UK
                2Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University Doha, Qatar
                3Department of Physical Education and Sports Studies, Newman University Birmingham, UK
                4Department of Rehabilitation, Nutrition and Sport, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                5Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, The University of Hull Hull, UK
                6ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspire Zone Doha, Qatar
                Author notes

                Edited by: Barbara Morgan, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

                Reviewed by: Noah J. Marcus, Des Moines University, USA; Jerome A. Dempsey, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

                *Correspondence: Lee Taylor lee.taylor@

                This article was submitted to Exercise Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Copyright © 2016 Aldous, Chrismas, Akubat, Dascombe, Abt and Taylor.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Equations: 3, References: 66, Pages: 14, Words: 12400
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology

                physiological, decrements, physical, hypoxia, hot, football


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