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      Alveolar fibrocyte percentage is an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute lung injury.

      Critical Care Medicine

      Treatment Outcome, pathology, diagnosis, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult, Respiration, Artificial, cytology, Pulmonary Alveoli, Prospective Studies, Prognosis, Middle Aged, Male, Humans, Flow Cytometry, Female, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Aged, Age Factors, Acute Lung Injury

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          Abstract

          Fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitors involved in normal and pathologic repair. The aims of this study were: 1) to quantify fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with or without acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome; and 2) to evaluate the prognostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage fibrocyte percentage in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prospective cohort study. Three intensive care units of a large tertiary referral center. One hundred twenty-two ventilated patients requiring bronchoalveolar lavage were enrolled (62 acute respiratory distress syndrome, 30 acute lung injury, 30-ventilated patients without acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome). After bronchoalveolar lavage collection during standard care, the patients were followed up for 28 days and clinical outcome was recorded. Fibrocytes (CD45+/collagen 1+) were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage by flow cytometry. Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fibrocyte percentage from patients with or without acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome was performed using a Wilcoxon test. A multivariate analysis using a Cox model was performed to study the independent predictors of survival. Fibrocytes were detected in 90 of 92 (98%) bronchoalveolar lavages from patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The median percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fibrocytes was significantly higher in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (5.0%) in comparison with ventilated control subjects (0.9%, p < .0001). After adjustment for age, comorbidity of malignancy, and severity of illness, a bronchoalveolar lavage fibrocyte percentage >6% was independently associated with a higher 28-day mortality in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 6.15 [2.78-13.64], p ≤ .0001). Addition of bronchoalveolar lavage fibrocyte percentage in a clinical model predicting mortality in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome improved global fit and discriminatory capacity (c-statistic, 0.78-0.85; p = .007). Fibrocytes are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage during acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. A bronchoalveolar lavage fibrocyte percentage >6% provides an additive prognostic value to clinical predictors and may be useful to identify patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome at highest risk of an adverse outcome.

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          Journal
          21926612
          10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822d718b

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