Objective To analyze the development status and sensitive periods of Han and Mongolian students’ physical fitness development in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, to provide a basis for further research on the growth and development of young students and the selection of athletes.
Methods In 2014, 15 370 Han and Mongolian students from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, ranging in age from 7 to 18 years old, participated in this study. Data on six physical fitness indices, namely grip strength, 50 meters, standing long jump, 800 meters or 1 000 meters, pull-ups/sit-ups in succession, and sit-and-reach were collected. Furthermore, using the average annual growth rate and the standard deviation of half annual growth rate, critical values and the ages at which sensitive periods occur were calculated to examine the differences in the development of various physical qualities between the two ethnic groups.
Results The students showed different growth rates of various indicators at different ages. A sensitive period for strength occurred in Han and Mongolian boys aged 13–15 years old and 12–15 years old, respectively. Sensitive periods for speed occurred in Han and Mongolian boys aged 8–10, 13, and 15 years and 8, 10, and 13–15 years, respectively. Sensitive periods for endurance occurred in Mongolian girls aged 8, 14, and 18 years. Sensitive periods for flexibility occurred in Han girls aged 13 and 15 years old.
Conclusion Han and Mongolian students experience sensitive periods for different physical qualities at different ages. Moreover, there are apparent ethnic and gender differences that are retained across age groups and several scattered age points that exist alone or interspersed with each other.
【摘要】 目的 研究内蒙古自治区汉族与蒙古族学生身体素质发展现状及敏感期特点, 为青少年学生生长发育规律的研 究及运动员选材提供依据。 方法 以内蒙古自治区2014年7〜18岁15 370名汉族和蒙古族学生作为研究对象, 选取握 力、50 m跑、立定跳远、800/1 000 m跑、引体向上/仰卧起坐、坐位体前屈等6项身体素质测试数据, 采用年增长率的平均 值加0.5个年增长率标准差的方法, 计算各项身体素质的敏感期临界值和敏感期年龄, 比较各项身体素质发展的民族差 异。 结果 2014年内蒙古自治区7〜18岁汉族与蒙古族男女生的各项运动指标在不同年龄阶段的增长速度有差异。汉族 与蒙古族男生力量素质的敏感期分别为13〜15和12〜15岁；汉族与蒙古族男生速度素质的敏感期分别为8〜10, 13, 15岁 和8, 10, 13〜15岁;蒙古族女生全身耐力素质的敏感期为8, 14, 18岁；汉族女生柔韧素质的敏感期为13和15岁。 结论 汉族与蒙古族男女生各项身体素质有1〜4个敏感阶段, 总体表现在8〜10, 13〜15岁年龄阶段, 呈现出连续的年龄段和分 散的数个年龄点单独存在或相互穿插的特征, 且表现出明显的民族和性别差异。