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      Immunoassay-based screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sediments: requirements for a new generation of test kits

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      Journal of Environmental Monitoring

      Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

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          Abstract

          Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been proposed for the inclusion in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority list, currently under revision. Various screening methods have been employed for PCB determination in different environmental matrixes in the last decades, immunoassays being one of the most employed. A literature review reveals that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly applied immunoassay for PCB determination in the environment. However, its application to sediments is very limited. A suitability assessment of immunoassay-based analysis for PCB screening in sediments is presented in this work. The significance of available immunoassay-based test kits under the current environmental pollution scenario and their performance against the sensitivity and specificity requirements dictated by the WFD for PCB analysis in sediments is discussed. For example, current detection limits of available test kits for PCB determination in sediments may not be enough for compliance checking under the WFD. In addition, concentration expressed as Aroclor equivalents does not seem to be the way forward. A proposal for adapting available test kits in order to become more suitable tools for PCB screening in sediments is also presented in this study.

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          Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism of action.

           S H Safe (1983)
          Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls are industrial chemical mixtures which have been implicated in numerous human poisonings in Taiwan and Japan (PCBs) and Michigan (PBBs). Moreover, these polyhalogenated biphenyls have been widely detected in the environment including the air, water, fish, wildlife, human adipose tissue, and blood and breast milk. A major problem associated with the analysis and toxicology of this group of chemicals is their chemical complexity (e.g., there are 209 possible PCB isomers and congeners) and the remarkable effects of structure on activity. This article will discuss the effects of structure on the biologic and toxic effects of individual PCB and PBB congeners as well as reconstituted mixtures. The results clearly show that like "dioxin" (or 2,3,7,8-TCDD), the PCBs and PBBs elicit their effects through a cytosolic receptor protein which preferentially binds with the toxins which are approximate isostereomers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The evidence for this mechanism of action will be discussed in detail.
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            Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners--a mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption.

            Information on the historical global production and consumption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is urgently needed for estimating PCB fluxes to the environment and for interpreting global contamination patterns by these pollutants. This study presents the methodology, principal uncertainties and selected results from an inventory, aiming to quantify the global production and consumption of total PCBs as well as 22 PCB congeners. The available data on the historical production of PCBs and the chemical composition of various technical mixtures have been compiled from the literature. For some producers with less detailed information, the production of individual PCB constituents has been estimated to derive a global estimate for individual homologues and selected congeners. Information on imports, exports and consumption, as well as restrictions on production and imports, has further been compiled for individual countries. These data, along with assumptions on the trade between countries and regions, have been utilised to derive an estimate of the global historical consumption pattern. Although there are substantial uncertainties involved in these estimates, important aspects governing the large scale temporal and spatial patterns are most likely captured in these estimates. In particular, the information on imports and exports for the principal users of PCBs around the time of peak production is considered to be fairly reliable. The estimates account for a reported historical global production of approximately 1.3 million t PCBs, more than 70% of which are tri-, tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenyls. The results further suggest that almost 97% of the global historical use of PCBs have occurred in the Northern Hemisphere.
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              Accumulation and diagenesis of chlorinated hydrocarbons in lacustrine sediments

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JEMOFW
                Journal of Environmental Monitoring
                J. Environ. Monit.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1464-0325
                1464-0333
                2011
                2011
                : 13
                : 4
                : 894
                Article
                10.1039/c0em00569j
                21359314
                © 2011
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=c0em00569j

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