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      First cytogenetic information on four checkered beetles (Coleoptera, Cleridae)

      , 1

      Comparative Cytogenetics

      Pensoft Publishers

      Chromosome, Cleridae , Coleoptera , cytogenetic, Tilloidea , Trichodes

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          The karyotypes of four species of Cleridae ( Coleoptera ): Trichodes favarius (Illiger, 1802), Trichodes quadriguttatus Adams, 1817, Trichodes reichei (Mulsant et Rey, 1863), and Tilloidea transversalis (Charpentier, 1825) were reported for the first time with this study. The chromosome numbers of these four species were determined as 2n = 18, sex chromosome system Xy p, and all chromosomes were metacentric (the except y chromosome). Together with this study, the chromosome data of only 17 species are available in this family. It is remarkable that all of them display the same chromosome number and similar karyotypes. This may make the effect of karyotypical features important in interpreting the evolutionary process of Cleridae .

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          Most cited references 19

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          Centromere strength provides the cell biological basis for meiotic drive and karyotype evolution in mice.

          Mammalian karyotypes (number and structure of chromosomes) can vary dramatically over short evolutionary time frames. There are examples of massive karyotype conversion, from mostly telocentric (centromere terminal) to mostly metacentric (centromere internal), in 10(2)-10(5) years. These changes typically reflect rapid fixation of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, a common chromosomal rearrangement that joins two telocentric chromosomes at their centromeres to create one metacentric. Fixation of Rb fusions can be explained by meiotic drive: biased chromosome segregation during female meiosis in violation of Mendel's first law. However, there is no mechanistic explanation of why fusions would preferentially segregate to the egg in some populations, leading to fixation and karyotype change, while other populations preferentially eliminate the fusions and maintain a telocentric karyotype. Here we show, using both laboratory models and wild mice, that differences in centromere strength predict the direction of drive. Stronger centromeres, manifested by increased kinetochore protein levels and altered interactions with spindle microtubules, are preferentially retained in the egg. We find that fusions preferentially segregate to the polar body in laboratory mouse strains when the fusion centromeres are weaker than those of telocentrics. Conversely, fusion centromeres are stronger relative to telocentrics in natural house mouse populations that have changed karyotype by accumulating metacentric fusions. Our findings suggest that natural variation in centromere strength explains how the direction of drive can switch between populations. They also provide a cell biological basis of centromere drive and karyotype evolution.
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            Chromosome evolution.

             Ingo Schubert (2007)
            The idea of evolution as a principle for the origin of biodiversity fits all phenomena of life, including the carriers of nuclear inheritance, the chromosomes. Insights into the evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to the shape, size, composition, number and redundancy of chromosomes elucidate the high plasticity of nuclear genomes at the chromosomal level, and the potential for genome modification in the course of breeding processes. Aspects of chromosome fusion, as exemplified by karyotype evolution of relatives of Arabidopsis, have recently received special attention.
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              Cytogenetics and cladistics.

              Chromosomal data have been underutilized in phylogenetic investigations despite the obvious potential that cytogenetic studies have to reveal both structural and functional homologies among taxa. In large part this is associated with difficulties in scoring conventional and molecular cytogenetic information for phylogenetic analysis. The manner in which chromosomal data have been used by most authors in the past was often conceptionally flawed in terms of the methods and principles underpinning modern cladistics. We present herein a review of the different methods employed, examine their relative strengths, and then outline a simple approach that considers the chromosomal change as the character, and its presence or absence the character state. We test this using one simulated and several empirical data sets. Features that are unique to cytogenetic investigations, including B-chromosomes, heterochromatic additions/deletions, and the location and number of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), as well as the weighting of chromosomal characters, are critically discussed with regard to their suitability for phylogenetic reconstruction. We conclude that each of these classes of data have inherent problems that limit their usefulness in phylogenetic analyses and in most of these instances, inclusion should be subject to rigorous appraisal that addresses the criterion of unequivocal homology.

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                27 October 2020
                : 14
                : 4
                : 541-547
                [1 ] Kırşehir Ahi Evran University, Department of Anthropology, Kırşehir, Turkey Kırşehir Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Turkey
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Atılay Yağmur Okutaner ( atilayyagmur@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: D. Lachowska

                Atılay Yağmur Okutaner

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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