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      Length-dependent recognition of double-stranded ribonucleic acids by retinoic acid–inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5

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          Abstract

          The ribonucleic acid (RNA) helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA5) recognize distinct viral and synthetic RNAs, leading to the production of interferons. Although 5′-triphosphate single-stranded RNA is a RIG-I ligand, the role of RIG-I and MDA5 in double-stranded (ds) RNA recognition remains to be characterized. In this study, we show that the length of dsRNA is important for differential recognition by RIG-I and MDA5. The MDA5 ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, was converted to a RIG-I ligand after shortening of the dsRNA length. In addition, viral dsRNAs differentially activated RIG-I and MDA5, depending on their length. Vesicular stomatitis virus infection generated dsRNA, which is responsible for RIG-I–mediated recognition. Collectively, RIG-I detects dsRNAs without a 5′-triphosphate end, and RIG-I and MDA5 selectively recognize short and long dsRNAs, respectively.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Pathogen recognition and innate immunity.

          Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune cells. Exposure of immune cells to the ligands of these receptors activates intracellular signaling cascades that rapidly induce the expression of a variety of overlapping and unique genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity.
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            Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3.

            Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune-recognition receptors that recognize molecular patterns associated with microbial pathogens, and induce antimicrobial immune responses. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a molecular pattern associated with viral infection, because it is produced by most viruses at some point during their replication. Here we show that mammalian TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, and that activation of the receptor induces the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). TLR3-deficient (TLR3-/-) mice showed reduced responses to polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), resistance to the lethal effect of poly(I:C) when sensitized with d-galactosamine (d-GalN), and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. MyD88 is an adaptor protein that is shared by all the known TLRs. When activated by poly(I:C), TLR3 induces cytokine production through a signalling pathway dependent on MyD88. Moreover, poly(I:C) can induce activation of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases independently of MyD88, and cause dendritic cells to mature.
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              A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA.

               T Kawai,  S. Sato,  H Hemmi (2000)
              DNA from bacteria has stimulatory effects on mammalian immune cells, which depend on the presence of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the bacterial DNA. In contrast, mammalian DNA has a low frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and these are mostly methylated; therefore, mammalian DNA does not have immuno-stimulatory activity. CpG DNA induces a strong T-helper-1-like inflammatory response. Accumulating evidence has revealed the therapeutic potential of CpG DNA as adjuvants for vaccination strategies for cancer, allergy and infectious diseases. Despite its promising clinical use, the molecular mechanism by which CpG DNA activates immune cells remains unclear. Here we show that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9. TLR9-deficient (TLR9-/-) mice did not show any response to CpG DNA, including proliferation of splenocytes, inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and maturation of dendritic cells. TLR9-/- mice showed resistance to the lethal effect of CpG DNA without any elevation of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. The in vivo CpG-DNA-mediated T-helper type-1 response was also abolished in TLR9-/- mice. Thus, vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll-like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Host Defense, World Premiere International Immunology Frontier Research Center, [2 ]Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, [3 ]Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, Cyuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530, Japan
                [5 ]Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, and [6 ]Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
                [7 ]Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232
                Author notes

                CORRESPONDENCE Shizuo Akira: sakira@ 123456biken.osaka-u.ac.jp

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                7 July 2008
                : 205
                : 7
                : 1601-1610
                2442638
                20080091
                10.1084/jem.20080091
                18591409
                © 2008 Kato et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.jem.org/misc/terms.shtml). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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