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      Sticky flatworms (Platyhelminthes) kill armored harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) but are not immune to the prey′s weapons

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 , 2

      Journal of Zoology

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 36

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          Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world.

          Aposematism is an anti-predator defence, dependent on a predator's ability to associate unprofitable prey with a prey-borne signal. Multimodal signals should vary in efficacy according to the sensory systems of different predators; however, until now, the impact of multiple predator classes on the evolution of these signals had not been investigated. Here, using a community-level molecular phylogeny to generate phylogenetically independent contrasts, we show that warning signals of tiger moths vary according to the seasonal and daily activity patterns of birds and bats-predators with divergent sensory capacities. Many tiger moths advertise chemical defence using conspicuous colouration and/or ultrasonic clicks. During spring, when birds are active and bats less so, we found that tiger moths did not produce ultrasonic clicks. Throughout both spring and summer, tiger moths most active during the day were visually conspicuous. Those species emerging later in the season produced ultrasonic clicks; those that were most nocturnal were visually cryptic. Our results indicate that selective pressures from multiple predator classes have distinct roles in the evolution of multimodal warning displays now effective against a single predator class. We also suggest that the evolution of acoustic warning signals may lack the theoretical difficulties associated with the origination of conspicuous colouration.
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            Quantitative analysis of cell types during growth, degrowth and regeneration in the planarians Dugesia mediterranea and Dugesia tigrina

             J Bagu,  R. E. Romero (1981)
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              Predation behaviour of land planarians

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Zoology
                J Zool
                Wiley
                09528369
                October 2018
                October 2018
                May 30 2018
                : 306
                : 2
                : 88-94
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução; Escola de Artes Ciências e Humanidades; Universidade de São Paulo; São Paulo SP Brazil
                [2 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia; Instituto de Biociências; Universidade de São Paulo; São Paulo SP Brazil
                [3 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução; Universidade Federal de São Paulo; Campus Diadema; Diadema SP Brazil
                [4 ]Laboratório de Ecologia Sensorial e Comportamento de Artrópodes (LESCA); Escola de Artes Ciências e Humanidades; Universidade de São Paulo; São Paulo SP Brazil
                Article
                10.1111/jzo.12570
                © 2018

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