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      Impacts of artificial light at night in marine ecosystems—A review

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          Abstract

          The globally widespread adoption of Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) began in the mid‐20th century. Yet, it is only in the last decade that a renewed research focus has emerged into its impacts on ecological and biological processes in the marine environment that are guided by natural intensities, moon phase, natural light and dark cycles and daily light spectra alterations. The field has diversified rapidly from one restricted to impacts on a handful of vertebrates, to one in which impacts have been quantified across a broad array of marine and coastal habitats and species. Here, we review the current understanding of ALAN impacts in diverse marine ecosystems. The review presents the current state of knowledge across key marine and coastal ecosystems (sandy and rocky shores, coral reefs and pelagic) and taxa (birds and sea turtles), introducing how ALAN can mask seabird and sea turtle navigation, cause changes in animals predation patterns and failure of coral spawning synchronization, as well as inhibition of zooplankton Diel Vertical Migration. Mitigation measures are recommended, however, while strategies for mitigation were easily identified, barriers to implementation are poorly understood. Finally, we point out knowledge gaps that if addressed would aid in the prediction and mitigation of ALAN impacts in the marine realm.

          Abstract

          (a) Different marine environments not affected by Artificial Light Pollution at Night (ALAN), and (b) marine environments under the potential impacts of ALAN.

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          Most cited references195

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          Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene

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            Coral reefs in the Anthropocene

            Coral reefs support immense biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services to many millions of people. Yet reefs are degrading rapidly in response to numerous anthropogenic drivers. In the coming centuries, reefs will run the gauntlet of climate change, and rising temperatures will transform them into
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              The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness

              Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                laurafbmarangoni@gmail.com
                thomas.w.davies@plymouth.ac.uk
                oren.levy@biu.ac.il
                Journal
                Glob Chang Biol
                Glob Chang Biol
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2486
                GCB
                Global Change Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1354-1013
                1365-2486
                14 June 2022
                September 2022
                : 28
                : 18 ( doiID: 10.1111/gcb.v28.18 )
                : 5346-5367
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Smithsonian Institution Ciudad de Panamá Panamá
                [ 2 ] School of Biological and Marine Sciences University of Plymouth Plymouth Devon UK
                [ 3 ] Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place Plymouth Devon UK
                [ 4 ] Grupo de Ornitología e Historia Natural de las islas Canarias, GOHNIC Buenavista del Norte Canary Islands Spain
                [ 5 ] Terrestrial Ecology Group, Department of Ecology Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Madrid Spain
                [ 6 ] Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC‐UAM) Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Madrid Spain
                [ 7 ] College of Science and Engineering, Marine Biology James Cook University Townsville Australia
                [ 8 ] Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida Universidad Andres Bello Santiago Chile
                [ 9 ] Pendoley Environmental Pty Ltd Booragoon Australia
                [ 10 ] Department for Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty for Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics UiT The Arctic University of Norway Tromsø Norway
                [ 11 ] University Centre in Svalbard Longyearbyen Norway
                [ 12 ] Department of Biology and Technology, Centre of Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway
                [ 13 ] Dip. di Biologia, CoNISMa Università di Pisa Pisa Italy
                [ 14 ] Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences Bar‐Ilan University Ramat Gan Israel
                [ 15 ] The Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences, The H. Steinitz Marine Biology Laboratory Eilat Israel
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Oren Levy, Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar‐Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

                Email: oren.levy@ 123456biu.ac.il

                Laura F. B. Marangoni, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá.

                Email: laurafbmarangoni@ 123456gmail.com

                Thomas Davies, School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, UK.

                Email: thomas.w.davies@ 123456plymouth.ac.uk

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8826-7126
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4673-9893
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7882-135X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1365-4607
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0900-5679
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6934-9380
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5478-6307
                Article
                GCB16264 GCB-22-0300.R1
                10.1111/gcb.16264
                9540822
                35583661
                af4fb2fa-5f5d-4496-8ab4-2af9f4b9cb6e
                © 2022 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 26 April 2022
                : 07 February 2022
                : 26 April 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Pages: 22, Words: 17524
                Funding
                Funded by: Natural Environment Research Council , doi 10.13039/501100000270;
                Award ID: NE/S003533/2
                Award ID: NE/S003568/1
                Funded by: Norwegian Research Council , doi 10.13039/501100005416;
                Award ID: 300333
                Award ID: 276730
                Categories
                Gcb Review
                Gcb Review
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                September 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.2.0 mode:remove_FC converted:07.10.2022

                artificial light at night (alan),conservation guidelines,coral reefs,marine ecosystem,pelagic organisms,rocky intertidal shores,sandy beach,seabirds,sea‐turtles

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