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      Is left ventricular hypertrophy a modifiable risk factor in end-stage renal disease :

      Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and has been advocated as a therapeutic target. We review the considerations for targeting LVH as a modifiable risk factor in ESRD.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial involving 2776 patients, 50 to 80 years of age, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. We randomly assigned patients to receive rosuvastatin, 10 mg daily, or placebo. The combined primary end point was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary end points included death from all causes and individual cardiac and vascular events. After 3 months, the mean reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels was 43% in patients receiving rosuvastatin, from a mean baseline level of 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). During a median follow-up period of 3.8 years, 396 patients in the rosuvastatin group and 408 patients in the placebo group reached the primary end point (9.2 and 9.5 events per 100 patient-years, respectively; hazard ratio for the combined end point in the rosuvastatin group vs. the placebo group, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.11; P=0.59). Rosuvastatin had no effect on individual components of the primary end point. There was also no significant effect on all-cause mortality (13.5 vs. 14.0 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.51). In patients undergoing hemodialysis, the initiation of treatment with rosuvastatin lowered the LDL cholesterol level but had no significant effect on the composite primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00240331.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia.

            Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have been found to have low predictive power, while markers of inflammation and malnutrition are highly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathophysiology of the disease process that links uremia, inflammation, and malnutrition with increased cardiovascular complications is not well understood. We hereby propose the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress and its sequalae is a major contributor to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found in uremia. This hypothesis is based on studies that conclusively demonstrate an increased oxidative burden in uremic patients, before and particularly after renal replacement therapies, as evidenced by higher concentrations of multiple biomarkers of oxidative stress. This hypothesis also provides a framework to explain the link that activated phagocytes provide between oxidative stress and inflammation (from infectious and non-infections causes) and the synergistic role that malnutrition (as reflected by low concentrations of albumin and/or antioxidants) contributes to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in uremia. We further propose that retained uremic solutes such as beta-2 microglobulin, advanced glycosylated end products (AGE), cysteine, and homocysteine, which are substrates for oxidative injury, further contribute to the pro-atherogenic milieu of uremia. Dialytic therapy, which acts to reduce the concentration of oxidized substrates, improves the redox balance. However, processes related to dialytic therapy, such as the prolonged use of catheters for vascular access and the use of bioincompatible dialysis membranes, can contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state and thus to a pro-atherogenic state. Anti-oxidative therapeutic strategies for patients with uremia are in their very early stages; nonetheless, early studies demonstrate the potential for significant efficacy in reducing cardiovascular complications.
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              Fibroblast growth factor 23 and left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease.

              Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a phosphorus-regulating hormone. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF-23 levels are markedly elevated and independently associated with mortality. Left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery calcification are potent risk factors for mortality in CKD, and FGFs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both myocardial hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to test the hypothesis that elevated FGF-23 concentrations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery calcification in patients with CKD. In this study, 162 subjects with CKD underwent echocardiograms and computed tomography scans to assess left ventricular mass index and coronary artery calcification; echocardiograms also were obtained in 58 subjects without CKD. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses in the overall sample, increased log FGF-23 concentrations were independently associated with increased left ventricular mass index (5% increase per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23; P=0.01) and risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.2). These associations strengthened in analyses restricted to the CKD subjects (11% increase in left ventricular mass index per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23; P=0.01; odds ratio of left ventricular hypertrophy per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.2). Although the highest tertile of FGF-23 was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of coronary artery calcification > or =100 versus <100 U compared with the lowest tertile (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.5), the association was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment. FGF-23 is independently associated with left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD. Whether increased FGF-23 is a marker or a potential mechanism of myocardial hypertrophy in CKD requires further study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
                Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1062-4821
                2014
                November 2014
                : 23
                : 6
                : 578-585
                Article
                10.1097/MNH.0000000000000067
                4266593
                25295959
                © 2014

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