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Exploring the gaps between education and pharmacy practice on antimicrobial stewardship: a qualitative study among pharmacists in Qatar

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      Abstract

      Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health issue and is the focus of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) teams within health care institutions. However, AMS is not comprehensively and fully taught in medical or pharmacy curricula and little is known about the relevance of pharmacist training to meet AMS needs in the Middle East region. We aimed to explore the discord that may exist between infectious diseases education and actual clinical practice with regard to AMS knowledge and training skills in Qatar. Then, we sought to further explore pharmacist perceptions of their AMS roles in hospital environments.

      Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken at Qatar University using three focus groups consisting of 15 pharmacy alumni who are currently practicing as clinical pharmacists in Qatar. Focus groups were facilitated using a topic guide developed by study investigators. Discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed using framework analysis.

      Results: Two major themes related to the first objective emerged throughout the discussions and associated recommendations made to improve (i) infectious diseases (ID) module content and delivery and (ii) ID knowledge and skills application. Two themes related to the second objective included (i) impact of pharmacist’s interventions on decision-making and (ii) continuing professional development programming.

      Conclusion: Our findings guide ongoing efforts to enhance ID content in the curriculum and will close gaps related to AMS training. Pharmacists are core AMS team members where there is an ongoing need to align continuing education for health professionals with realities of practice.

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      Most cited references 30

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      Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research

      Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research.
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        Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

        Evidence-based guidelines for implementation and measurement of antibiotic stewardship interventions in inpatient populations including long-term care were prepared by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The panel included clinicians and investigators representing internal medicine, emergency medicine, microbiology, critical care, surgery, epidemiology, pharmacy, and adult and pediatric infectious diseases specialties. These recommendations address the best approaches for antibiotic stewardship programs to influence the optimal use of antibiotics.
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          Behavior change strategies to influence antimicrobial prescribing in acute care: a systematic review.

          Antimicrobial use in acute care is widely reported to be suboptimal. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials is a major contributing factor to the emergence of multidrug resistance and health care-associated infection. Addressing prescribing behavior is a key component of antimicrobial stewardship. We performed a novel systematic review of both qualitative and quantitative literature on antimicrobial prescribing behavior in acute care. We assessed the extent to which behavioral sciences and social marketing were used and whether this could be related to the effectiveness of reported outcomes. MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Business Source Complete, The Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) were searched for studies undertaken during the period January 1999-April 2011 and published in English. Five qualitative and 5 quantitative studies met the quality criteria. Qualitative studies highlight the predominant influence of social norms, attitudes, and beliefs on antimicrobial prescribing behavior. Quantitative studies reporting interventions to optimize antimicrobial prescribing behavior do not use theoretical science or primary research to inform the design and choice of the interventions deployed. Despite qualitative evidence demonstrating the impact of behavioral determinants and social norms on prescribing, these influences are not given due consideration in the design and evaluation of interventions. To ensure a better understanding of prescribing behaviors and to improve the quality of interventions and research in this area, the incorporation and application of behavioral sciences supported by appropriate multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]College of Pharmacy, Qatar University , Doha, Qatar
            [2 ]Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the University of British Columbia , Vancouver, Canada
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Ziad G NasrCollege of Pharmacy, Qatar University , PO Box 2713, Doha, QatarTel +974 4403 5633Fax +974 4403 5551Email znasr@ 123456qu.edu.qa
            Journal
            Adv Med Educ Pract
            Adv Med Educ Pract
            AMEP
            amep
            Advances in Medical Education and Practice
            Dove
            1179-7258
            06 May 2019
            2019
            : 10
            : 287-295
            31191076 6511628 198343 10.2147/AMEP.S198343
            © 2019 Nasr et al.

            This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

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            Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 9
            Categories
            Original Research

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