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      Does quality of drinking water matter in kidney stone disease: A study in West Bengal, India

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          The combined interaction of epidemiology, environmental exposure, dietary habits, and genetic factors causes kidney stone disease (KSD), a common public health problem worldwide. Because a high water intake (>3 L daily) is widely recommended by physicians to prevent KSD, the present study evaluated whether the quantity of water that people consume daily is associated with KSD and whether the quality of drinking water has any effect on disease prevalence.

          Materials and Methods

          Information regarding residential address, daily volume of water consumption, and source of drinking water was collected from 1,266 patients with kidney stones in West Bengal, India. Drinking water was collected by use of proper methods from case (high stone prevalence) and control (zero stone prevalence) areas thrice yearly. Water samples were analyzed for pH, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solutes, electrical conductivity, and salinity. Average values of the studied parameters were compared to determine if there were any statistically significant differences between the case and control areas.


          We observed that as many as 53.6% of the patients consumed <3 L of water daily. Analysis of drinking water samples from case and control areas, however, did not show any statistically significant alterations in the studied parameters. All water samples were found to be suitable for consumption.


          It is not the quality of water, rather the quantity of water consumed that matters most in the occurrence of KSD.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient.

          Water is an essential nutrient required for life. To be well hydrated, the average sedentary adult man must consume at least 2,900 mL (12 c) fluid per day, and the average sedentary adult woman at least 2,200 mL (9 c) fluid per day, in the form of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute approximately 1,000 mL (4 c) water, with an additional 250 mL (1 c) coming from the water of oxidation. The Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys indicate that a portion of the population may be chronically mildly dehydrated. Several factors may increase the likelihood of chronic, mild dehydration, including a poor thirst mechanism, dissatisfaction with the taste of water, common consumption of the natural diuretics caffeine and alcohol, participation in exercise, and environmental conditions. Dehydration of as little as 2% loss of body weight results in impaired physiological and performance responses. New research indicates that fluid consumption in general and water consumption in particular can have an effect on the risk of urinary stone disease; cancers of the breast, colon, and urinary tract; childhood and adolescent obesity; mitral valve prolapse; salivary gland function; and overall health in the elderly. Dietitians should be encouraged to promote and monitor fluid and water intake among all of their clients and patients through education and to help them design a fluid intake plan. The influence of chronic mild dehydration on health and disease merits further research.
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            Kidney stones.

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              Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan


                Author and article information

                Investig Clin Urol
                Investig Clin Urol
                Investigative and Clinical Urology
                The Korean Urological Association
                May 2018
                24 April 2018
                : 59
                : 3
                : 158-165
                [1 ]Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Madhusudan Das. Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal, India. TEL: +91-9831281756, FAX: +91-33-2461-4849, madhuzoo@ 123456yahoo.com
                © The Korean Urological Association, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001409;
                Award ID: DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2016/IF160107
                Original Article

                water quality, kidney calculi, hardness, environment, drinking


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