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      3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic Acid Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response by Increasing SIRT1 Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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          Abstract

          3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid (THC) has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-induced RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells and in LPS-induced septic mice. However, the effect of THC on the inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells has not been clearly examined. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory properties of THC and its underlying mechanism in LPS-challenged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). THC significantly suppressed LPS-induced interleukin-1β production and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and significantly decreased LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB activation by attenuating p65 phosphorylation and inhibitor of kappa B degradation. To understand the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of THC, the involvement of the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway was examined. THC resulted in increased expression of SIRT1 in LPS-challenged HUVECs. Among the downstream molecular targets of SIRT1, the level of LPS-induced acetylated p53 was significantly decreased by THC treatment, whereas no noticeable change was observed in the levels of forkhead box O3 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha. In conclusion, the results clearly demonstrate that THC possesses anti-inflammatory properties by increasing SIRT1 expression and subsequent suppression of p53 activation in LPS-challenged HUVECs.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Antagonistic crosstalk between NF-κB and SIRT1 in the regulation of inflammation and metabolic disorders.

          Recent studies have indicated that the regulation of innate immunity and energy metabolism are connected together through an antagonistic crosstalk between NF-κB and SIRT1 signaling pathways. NF-κB signaling has a major role in innate immunity defense while SIRT1 regulates the oxidative respiration and cellular survival. However, NF-κB signaling can stimulate glycolytic energy flux during acute inflammation, whereas SIRT1 activation inhibits NF-κB signaling and enhances oxidative metabolism and the resolution of inflammation. SIRT1 inhibits NF-κB signaling directly by deacetylating the p65 subunit of NF-κB complex. SIRT1 stimulates oxidative energy production via the activation of AMPK, PPARα and PGC-1α and simultaneously, these factors inhibit NF-κB signaling and suppress inflammation. On the other hand, NF-κB signaling down-regulates SIRT1 activity through the expression of miR-34a, IFNγ, and reactive oxygen species. The inhibition of SIRT1 disrupts oxidative energy metabolism and stimulates the NF-κB-induced inflammatory responses present in many chronic metabolic and age-related diseases. We will examine the molecular mechanisms of the antagonistic signaling between NF-κB and SIRT1 and describe how this crosstalk controls inflammatory process and energy metabolism. In addition, we will discuss how disturbances in this signaling crosstalk induce the appearance of chronic inflammation in metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            DNA microarrays identification of primary and secondary target genes regulated by p53.

            The transcriptional program regulated by the tumor suppressor p53 was analysed using oligonucleotide microarrays. A human lung cancer cell line that expresses the temperature sensitive murine p53 was utilized to quantitate mRNA levels of various genes at different time points after shifting the temperature to 32 degrees C. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) was used to distinguish between primary and secondary target genes regulated by p53. In the absence of CHX, 259 and 125 genes were up or down-regulated respectively; only 38 and 24 of these genes were up and down-regulated by p53 also in the presence of CHX and are considered primary targets in this cell line. Cluster analysis of these data using the super paramagnetic clustering (SPC) algorithm demonstrate that the primary genes can be distinguished as a single cluster among a large pool of p53 regulated genes. This procedure identified additional genes that co-cluster with the primary targets and can also be classified as such genes. In addition to cell cycle (e.g. p21, TGF-beta, Cyclin E) and apoptosis (e.g. Fas, Bak, IAP) related genes, the primary targets of p53 include genes involved in many aspects of cell function, including cell adhesion (e.g. Thymosin, Smoothelin), signaling (e.g. H-Ras, Diacylglycerol kinase), transcription (e.g. ATF3, LISCH7), neuronal growth (e.g. Ninjurin, NSCL2) and DNA repair (e.g. BTG2, DDB2). The results suggest that p53 activates concerted opposing signals and exerts its effect through a diverse network of transcriptional changes that collectively alter the cell phenotype in response to stress.
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              Is Open Access

              Activation of Sirt1 by Resveratrol Inhibits TNF-α Induced Inflammation in Fibroblasts

              Inflammation is one of main mechanisms of autoimmune disorders and a common feature of most diseases. Appropriate suppression of inflammation is a key resolution to treat the diseases. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) has been shown to play a role in regulation of inflammation. Resveratrol, a potent Sirt1 activator, has anti-inflammation property. However, the detailed mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammation role of Sirt1 in NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell line. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in 3T3 cells and resveratrol suppressed overexpression of these pro-inflammatory molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Sirt1 by RNA interference caused 3T3 cells susceptible to TNF-α stimulation and diminished anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol. We also explored potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of resveratrol. Resveratrol reduced NF-κB subunit RelA/p65 acetylation, which is notably Sirt1 dependent. Resveratrol also attenuated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP) while ameliorating inflammation. Our data demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation via Sirt1. It suggests that Sirt1 is an efficient target for regulation of inflammation. This study provides insight on treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2020
                September 2020
                19 June 2020
                : 57
                : 5
                : 302-310
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea
                bCollege of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Dr. Wanjoo Chun, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Hyoja-2, Chuncheon 24341 (Republic of Korea), wchun@kangwon.ac.kr
                Article
                507628 J Vasc Res 2020;57:302–310
                10.1159/000507628
                32564014
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Methods in Vascular Biology

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