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      Blockade of Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition by a Smad3 Inhibitor Delays the Early Development of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          A multicenter, controlled trial showed that early blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes and normoalbuminuria did not retard the progression of nephropathy, suggesting that other mechanism(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of early diabetic nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy). We have previously demonstrated that endothelial-mesenchymal-transition (EndoMT) contributes to the early development of renal interstitial fibrosis independently of microalbuminuria in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In the present study, we hypothesized that blocking EndoMT reduces the early development of diabetic nephropathy.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          EndoMT was induced in a mouse pancreatic microvascular endothelial cell line (MMEC) in the presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and in the endothelial lineage–traceble mouse line Tie2-Cre;Loxp-EGFP by administration of AGEs, with nonglycated mouse albumin serving as a control. Phosphorylated Smad3 was detected by immunoprecipitation/Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Blocking studies using receptor for AGE siRNA and a specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) were performed in MMECs and in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Tie2-Cre;Loxp-EGFP mice.

          RESULTS

          Confocal microscopy and real-time PCR demonstrated that AGEs induced EndoMT in MMECs and in Tie2-Cre;Loxp-EGFP mice. Immunoprecipitation/Western blotting showed that Smad3 was activated by AGEs but was inhibited by SIS3 in MMECs and in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. Confocal microscopy and real-time PCR further demonstrated that SIS3 abrogated EndoMT, reduced renal fibrosis, and retarded progression of nephropathy.

          CONCLUSIONS

          EndoMT is a novel pathway leading to early development of diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of EndoMT by SIS3 may provide a new strategy to retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetes complications.

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          Most cited references30

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          Fibroblasts in kidney fibrosis emerge via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

          Fibroblasts are key mediators of fibrosis in the kidney and other organs, but their origin during fibrosis is still not completely clear. Activated fibroblasts likely arise from resident quiescent fibroblasts via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and from the bone marrow. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial cells also contribute to the emergence of fibroblasts during kidney fibrosis via the process of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). We examined the contribution of EndMT to renal fibrosis in three mouse models of chronic kidney disease: (1) Unilateral ureteral obstructive nephropathy, (2) streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, and (3) a model of Alport renal disease. Approximately 30 to 50% of fibroblasts coexpressed the endothelial marker CD31 and markers of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts such as fibroblast specific protein-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Endothelial lineage tracing using Tie2-Cre;R26R-stop-EYFP transgenic mice further confirmed the presence of EndMT-derived fibroblasts. Collectively, our results demonstrate that EndMT contributes to the accumulation of activated fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in kidney fibrosis and suggest that targeting EndMT might have therapeutic potential.
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            Blockade of RAGE-amphoterin signalling suppresses tumour growth and metastases.

            The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a multi-ligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, interacts with distinct molecules implicated in homeostasis, development and inflammation, and certain diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Engagement of RAGE by a ligand triggers activation of key cell signalling pathways, such as p21ras, MAP kinases, NF-kappaB and cdc42/rac, thereby reprogramming cellular properties. RAGE is a central cell surface receptor for amphoterin, a polypeptide linked to outgrowth of cultured cortical neurons derived from developing brain. Indeed, the co-localization of RAGE and amphoterin at the leading edge of advancing neurites indicated their potential contribution to cellular migration, and in pathologies such as tumour invasion. Here we demonstrate that blockade of RAGE-amphoterin decreased growth and metastases of both implanted tumours and tumours developing spontaneously in susceptible mice. Inhibition of the RAGE-amphoterin interaction suppressed activation of p44/p42, p38 and SAP/JNK MAP kinases; molecular effector mechanisms importantly linked to tumour proliferation, invasion and expression of matrix metalloproteinases.
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              Enhanced cellular oxidant stress by the interaction of advanced glycation end products with their receptors/binding proteins.

              Attack by reactive oxygen intermediates, common to many kinds of cell/tissue injury, has been implicated in the development of diabetic and other vascular diseases. Such oxygen-free radicals can be generated by advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are nonenzymatically glycated and oxidized proteins. Since cellular interactions of AGEs are mediated by specific cellular binding proteins, receptor for AGE (RAGE) and the lactoferrin-like polypeptide (LF-L), we tested the hypothesis that AGE ligands tethered to the complex of RAGE and LF-L could induce oxidant stress. AGE albumin or AGEs immunoisolated from diabetic plasma resulted in induction of endothelial cell (EC) oxidant stress, including the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and resulted in the activation of NF-kappa B, each of which was blocked by antibodies to AGE receptor polypeptides and by antioxidants. Infusion of AGE albumin into normal animals led to the appearance of malondialdehyde determinants in the vessel wall and increased TBARS in the tissues, activation of NF-kappa B, and induction of heme oxygenase mRNA. AGE-induced oxidant stress was inhibited by pretreatment of animals with either antibodies to the AGE receptor/binding proteins or antioxidants. These data indicate that interaction of AGEs with cellular targets, such as ECs, leads to oxidant stress resulting in changes in gene expression and other cellular properties, potentially contributing to the development of vascular lesions. Further studies will be required to dissect whether oxidant stress occurs on the cell surface or at an intracellular locus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                diabetes
                diabetes
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                October 2010
                3 August 2010
                : 59
                : 10
                : 2612-2624
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia;
                [2] 2Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Monash University, Victoria, Australia;
                [3] 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Vascular Biology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jinhua Li, jinhua.li@ 123456med.monash.edu.au .
                Article
                1631
                10.2337/db09-1631
                3279546
                20682692
                af784a05-04de-4591-bf27-4ce679218309
                © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

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                Pathophysiology

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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