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Trend of Occupational Injuries/Diseases in Pakistan: Index Value Analysis of Injured Employed Persons from 2001–02 to 2012–13

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      The present study aimed to analyze the index value trends of injured employed persons (IEPs) covered in Pakistan Labour Force Surveys from 2001–02 to 2012–13.


      The index value method based on reference years and reference groups was used to analyze the IEP trends in terms of different criteria such as gender, area, employment status, industry types, occupational groups, types of injury, injured body parts, and treatment received. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was also performed to investigate the inter-relationship of different occupational variables.


      The values of IEP increased at the end of the studied year in industry divisions such as agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing, followed by in manufacturing and construction industry divisions. People associated with major occupations (such as skilled agricultural and fishery workers) and elementary (unskilled) occupations were found to be at an increasing risk of occupational injuries/diseases with an increasing IEP trend. Types of occupational injuries such as sprain or strain, superficial injury, and dislocation increased during the studied years. Major injured parts of body such as upper limb and lower limb found with increasing trend. Types of treatment received, including hospitalization and no treatment, were found to decrease. Increased IEP can be justified due to inadequate health care facilities, especially in rural areas by increased IEP in terms of gender, areas, received treatment, occupational groups and employment status as results found after Pearson correlation coefficient analysis.


      The increasing trend in the IEP% of the total employed persons due to agrarian activities shows that there is a need to improve health care setups in rural areas of Pakistan.

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      Most cited references 19

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      Public health approaches to occupational injury prevention: do they work?

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        Occupational injuries in Ghana.

        Household interviews were used to survey 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites in Ghana, to determine the nature and extent of their occupational injuries. Annual occupational injury rates were 11.5 injuries/1000 persons in the urban areas and 44.9/1000 in the rural areas. Occupational injuries had higher mortality, longer disability, and higher treatment costs than non-occupational injuries. There were substantial occupational injury rates among children, especially in rural areas. In the urban areas, the largest numbers of injuries were to drivers (12.7% of urban occupational injuries) and traders (19.4%), most of which were road-traffic-related. In the rural areas, most injuries (71.6%) were to farm workers. Occupational injuries are a substantial burden in Ghana. Priorities include improving road safety and improving the prevention and treatment of injuries from nonmechanized farming.
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          Fatal occupational injuries among self-employed workers in North Carolina.

          Research suggests that rates of occupational injury and death may be higher among self-employed workers than in the wage and salaried population. This analysis was conducted to describe the demographic and occupational characteristics, as well as injuries, activities, and occupations of self-employed workers who are fatally injured on the job.

            Author and article information

            Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology Environment Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
            Author notes
            []Corresponding author. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology Environment Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdul-Aziz University, Abdullah Suleiman Street, Al Jamiaa Area, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. mohsinabbas34@
            Saf Health Work
            Saf Health Work
            Safety and Health at Work
            Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
            19 June 2015
            September 2015
            19 June 2015
            : 6
            : 3
            : 218-226
            Copyright © 2015, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

            This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

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