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      The Stratigraphy and Fire History of the Kutai Peatlands, Kalimantan, Indonesia

      , ,
      Quaternary Research
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          The equatorial peatlands of the Kutai lowland of eastern Kalimantan are generally 4–10 m in thickness but some sections exceed 16 m in depth. The deposition of peat commenced about 8000 yrs ago after shallow flooding of the basin by the Mahakam River. The earliest vegetation is a Pandanus swamp which grades upwards to swamp forest dominated by dipterocarps. The peatland has expanded laterally and rivers have maintained narrow levee-channel tracks through the swamp, which has grown vertically in balance with river accretion. Historical fires are associated with extreme El Niño years of drought, but human agency is important. The fires of 1982–1983 and 1997–1998 burnt up to 85% of the vegetation on the peatland. Although charcoal analyses show that fire has occurred throughout the history of the peatland, it is rare in forests remote from rivers until the last 3000 years and only common within the last millennium. Fires are earlier and more frequent in sites accessible from waterways, and floodplains have been widely burnt down to water table or below, forming extensive lakes.

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          Most cited references18

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          High-Precision Radiocarbon Age Calibration for Terrestrial and Marine Samples

          Single-year and decadal radiocarbon tree-ring ages are tabulated and discussed in terms of14C age calibration. The single-year data form the basis of a detailed14C age calibration curve for the cal ad 1510–1954 interval (“cal” denotes calibrated). The Seattle decadal data set (back to 11,617 cal BP, with 0 BP = ad 1950) is a component of the integrated decadal INTCAL9814C age curve (Stuiveret al.1998). Atmospheric14C ages can be transformed into14C ages of the global ocean using a carbon reservoir model. INTCAL9814C ages, used for these calculations, yield global ocean14C ages differing slightly from previously published ones (Stuiver and Braziunas 1993b). We include discussions of offsets, error multipliers, regional14C age differences and marine14C age response to oceanic and atmospheric forcing.
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            Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.

            The visual uniformity of tropical peat swamp forest masks the considerable variation in forest structure that has evolved in response to differences and changes in peat characteristics over many millennia. Details are presented of forest structure and tree composition of the principal peat swamp forest types in the upper catchment of Sungai Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in relation to thickness and hydrology of the peat. Consideration is given to data on peat geochemistry and age of peat that provide evidence of the ombrotrophic nature of this vast peatland and its mode of formation. The future sustainability of this ecosystem is predicted from information available on climate change and human impact in this region.
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              Palynological study of a holocene peat and a miocene coal deposit from NW Borneo

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Quaternary Research
                Quat. res.
                Elsevier BV
                0033-5894
                1096-0287
                November 2005
                January 20 2017
                November 2005
                : 64
                : 03
                : 407-417
                Article
                10.1016/j.yqres.2005.08.009
                af7fefcc-b26f-4086-bef5-ce013fd50d9d
                © 2005

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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