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      Epidemiological survey of anti-flea IgE in dogs in Japan by using an antigen-specific IgE quantitative measurement method Translated title: Étude épidémiologique des réponses sérologiques Ig-E anti-puces chez les chiens, au Japon, par utilisation d’une méthode de mesure spécifique et quantitative

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          In Japan, an epidemiological survey was performed in dogs from October to December 2008 by using a quantitative measurement method for antigen-specific IgE towards specific Ctenocephalides felis antigens. 214 dogs from 22 veterinary clinics were included. These clinics were located as follows, from North to South: Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City and Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. 110 dogs (51.4%) were seropositive for flea-specific IgE. No differences were associated with gender or breed. This survey confirms that flea infestation in dogs is a common problem in Japan. It especially shows that the infestation also occurs in Northern Japan where fleas are considered uncommon by the vet.

          Translated abstract

          Une étude épidémiologique a été conduite au Japon entre octobre et décembre 2008 sur des chiens par utilisation d’une méthode sérologique quantitative mesurant la réponse Ig-E anti-puces. 214 chiens ont été prélevés dans 22 cliniques vétérinaires. Ces cliniques sont situées, du nord au sud, dans les cantons de : Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City et Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto et Kagoshima. 110 chiens (51,4 %) étaient séropositifs vis-à-vis des Ig-E spécifiques de l’allergène puce. Aucune différence n’est associée au sexe ou à la race. Cette étude confirme que l’infestation des chiens par les puces est un problème courant au Japon. Elle démontre également que les infestations par les puces existent dans le nord du Japon, où les puces sont parfois considérées comme absentes par les vétérinaires.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Prevalence of flea infestation in dogs and cats in Hungary combined with a survey of owner awareness.

          A survey was conducted in order to gain current information on flea species (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) infesting dogs and cats living in urban and rural areas of Hungary, along with data on the factors that affect the presence, distribution and seasonality of infestation. In addition, owner awareness of flea infestation was evaluated. Practitioners in 13 veterinary clinics were asked to examine all dogs and cats attending the clinic and to collect fleas, when present, on 2 days in each month from December 2005 to November 2006. They also completed a questionnaire for each animal examined. A total of 319 dogs (14.1%) were found to be infested; the highest prevalence (27.1%) of infestation on dogs occurred in August and the lowest (5.4%) in May. Prevalence of fleas on cats was higher (22.9%); the highest (35.0%) and lowest (8.1%) prevalences occurred in July and April, respectively. Fleas were more prevalent in rural (387/1924 animals, 20.2%) than in urban (161/1343 animals, 12.0%) areas. Three species, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis) and Pulex irritans L., were found. On dogs, the prevalence of C. canis alone was 53.0%, whereas that of C. felis alone was 36.0%. Only 19 specimens of P. irritans were found on 14 dogs from rural habitats only. Prevalence of C. felis only on cats was 94.3%; the remaining cats were infested with either C. canis or with mixed infestations of C. felis and C. canis. More than half (51.4%) of the owners of infested dogs and cats had not used flea control products in the past year or more, and five times as many owners in rural than urban areas had not used flea control products in the same period. Very few owners reported having attempted to kill fleas in their animals' environment; instead, they believed that fleas were acquired from other cats or dogs.
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            Results of a European multicentric field efficacy study of fipronil-(S) methoprene combination on flea infestation of dogs and cats during 2009 summer.

             M. Franc,  F. BEUGNET (2010)
            Despite the increasing number of ectoparasiticides for pets and their use, flea infestations of cats and dogs are still widespread in Europe. It is therefore important to assess the maintenance of efficacy of the ectoparasiticides for cats and dogs. The present studies aimed to evaluate the efficacy of monthly treatments using a fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination spot-on (Frontline Combo) on dogs and cats from private veterinary clinics located in seven European countries. The survey was conducted for three months during the flea season 2009. A total of 233 dogs and 180 cats were included. Each animal was treated at Days 0 (Day 0), 30 (D30) and 60 (D60) at the vet clinics. For each animal, at least three flea counts were performed at D0, D30 and/or D60 and/or day 90 (Day 90) in order to evaluate the prevalence of flea infestation and the efficacy of control. At the beginning of the study the prevalence of infested animals was 41.63% (97/233) in dogs and 47.22% (85/180) in cats. At D90, the number of dogs remaining infested fell to 8/211 therefore 91.75% became flea-free. The number of infested cats fell from 85 to 9/173 at D90 therefore 89.41% were cured. All animals still infested at Day 90 were living under epidemiological conditions that favour heavy flea burdens. These results are similar or better to previous studies, indicating the continuous high level of efficacy for fipronil 10 years after launch.
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              Identification, cloning, and characterization of a major cat flea salivary allergen (Cte f 1).

              An 18 kDa protein isolated from saliva of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, elicits a positive intradermal skin test (IDST) in 100 and 80% of experimental and clinical flea allergic dogs, respectively. Using solid-phase enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA), this protein detected IgE in 100 and 80% of experimental and clinical flea allergic dogs, respectively. A cDNA (pFSI) encoding a full-length Cte f 1 protein was isolated from a C. felis salivary gland cDNA library, using a combination of PCR and hybridization screening. This cDNA is 658 bp in length, and contains an open reading frame of 528 bp. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 176 amino acids, consisting of an 18 amino acid signal sequence and a 158 amino acid mature protein. The calculated molecular weight and pI of the mature protein are 18106 Da and 9.3, respectively. The protein, named Cte f 1, is the first novel major allergen described for canine flea allergy. Recombinant Cte f 1 (rCte f 1) was expressed in Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris and baculovirus infected Trichoplusia ni cells. Approximately, 90% of the rCte f 1 expressed in E. coli accumulated in insoluble inclusion bodies, which could be refolded to a soluble mixture of disulfide isomers with partial IgE binding activity. Small quantities of an apparently correctly refolded form of rCte f 1, which had IgE binding activity equal to the native antigen, was isolated from the soluble fraction of E. coli cells. However, P. pastoris and baculovirus infected insect cells expressed and secreted a fully processed, correctly refolded and fully active form of rCte f 1. Mass spectrometry analysis of the active forms of rCte f 1confirmed that eight intact disulfide bonds were present, matching the number observed in the native allergen. The relative ability of rCte f 1 to bind IgE in the serum of flea allergic animals, produced in these three expression systems, matched that of the native allergen. Competition ELISA demonstrated that approximately 90% of the specific IgE binding to native Cte f 1 could be blocked by the different forms of rCte f 1.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                May 2012
                15 May 2012
                : 19
                : 2 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/02 )
                : 173-176
                [1 ] Merial Japan Limited 2-14-2 Nagata-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0014 Japan
                [2 ] Merial 29, avenue Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                Author notes
                [** ]Correspondence: Frédéric Beugnet. E-mail: frederic.beugnet@ 123456merial.com
                parasite2012192p173 10.1051/parasite/2012192173
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 12, Pages: 4
                Research Note


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