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      Cirugía fetal en la hernia diafragmática congénita

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          Abstract

          La hernia diafragmática congénita, se cree es resultado de la fusión incompleta de la membrana pleuroperitoneal y el paso del contenido abdominal al interior del tórax. Realizamos una revisión de la literatura sobre la etiología y del tratamiento de esta patología.

          Translated abstract

          Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is believed to result from incomplete pleuroperitoneal membrane fusion and passage of abdominal contents into the chest. We carry out a literature review regarding the etiology and treatment of this pathology.

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          Most cited references77

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          Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Epidemiology and outcome.

          Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a relatively common birth defect. It affects about 1114 babies a year in the United States. Reported survival averages 60% but may be significantly lower. We do not understand the etiology of CDH. Its association with other anomalies and several distinct patterns of presentation suggest that more than one cause may exist. There is a high degree of variability in both treatment and outcomes, but no data exist to allow a rigorous comparison of the efficacy of various treatment strategies. Stratification of patients into more homogeneous groups will be a necessary prerequisite for the design of meaningful comparative trials. The incidence of the lesion prevents any single institution from accruing sufficient patients to conduct such a trial. An ad hoc multicenter study group (the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group) has been formed for this purpose. This organization has begun collecting data with an initial goal of developing a stratification scheme. Prospective data collection should allow verification of several of the estimates made in this article. Current data make it clear that CDH represents a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality.
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            Experimental fetal tracheal ligation reverses the structural and physiological effects of pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

            Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DH) and profound pulmonary hypoplasia are currently unsalvageable. The authors previously demonstrated that tracheal ligation (TL) accelerates fetal lung growth and reverses the pulmonary hypoplasia of fetal nephrectomy. The purpose of this study was to determine if the pulmonary hypoplasia of experimental DH could be similarly reversed and, if so, whether the resulting lungs would show better function than those of their DH counterparts. Eighteen fetal lambs were divided into three experimental groups of six animals each. In group 1, DH was created at 90 days' gestation. In group 2, DH was created at 90 days' gestation and TL performed during the same operation. Group 3 consisted of sham-operated controls. These animals were delivered near full-term, and their lungs analyzed by standard morphometric techniques. Ten additional fetal lambs were divided into two experimental groups of five animals each. In group 4, DH was created at 90 days' gestation. In group 5, DH was created at 90 days' gestation and TL performed 20 days later, at 110 days' gestation. These animals were pressure-ventilated via tracheostomy over a 2-hour period in which PaO2, PaCO2, and compliance were measured. Intratracheal pressure (ITP) was measured at the time of delivery in all groups. Upon retrieval, DH animals had abdominal viscera in the chest and small lungs; in contrast, DH/TL animals had the herniated viscera reduced from the chest by enlarged lungs. DH/TL lungs showed markedly increased growth, with significant increases in lung volume:body weight ratio (LV:BW; P = .0001), alveolar surface area (ALV.SA; P = .0001), and alveolar number (ALV#) (P = .0001) when compared with those of the DH or control group. This growth was associated with a normal maturation pattern based on histological appearance, normal airspace fraction, and normal alveolar numerical density. ITP in the DH/TL group was increased when compared with that of DH and control animals (P = .0001). Total lung DNA and protein were both elevated in the DH/TL animals (P = .0001). However, the DNA:protein ratio remained normal, suggesting lung growth had occurred through cell proliferation, not by hypertrophy. When ventilated over a range of settings, DH/TL lungs were more compliant (P = .0001) and achieved higher PaO2s (P < .003) and lower PaCO2s (P = .0001) than their DH counterparts. From these data, the authors conclude: (1) Experimental fetal DH produces hypoplastic lungs that are not capable of adequate gas exchange with conventional ventilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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              Pulmonary morbidity in 100 survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia monitored in a multidisciplinary clinic.

              In 1990, the authors began a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients. Although the nonpulmonary complications associated with CDH have been reported previously from this clinic, the purpose of this report is to detail the pulmonary outcome in survivors of CDH with severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Between 1990 and 1999, one hundred patients were seen in the clinic. Before hospital discharge, all patients had baseline tests performed, which were repeated per protocol at clinic during follow-up. The data were analyzed by regression analysis to identify and determine the impact of factors on outcomes associated with the long-term pulmonary morbidity. The average birth weight was 3.16 kg (+/-0.7) with a mean Apgar score of 7 (+/- 2) at 5 minutes. Forty-one patients had an antenatal diagnosis performed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was utilized in 29 patients, and a patch repair was required in 32, whereas 16 patients received both. Average time to extubation was 20.7 (+/- 20) days and mean time to discharge was 59.7 (+/- 61) days. Regression analysis showed that both the need for ECMO and a patch repair were independent predictors of delay in extubation (P <. 001, R(2) = 36%), and delay in discharge from the hospital (P =.001, R(2) = 29%). ECMO also was significantly correlated with the need for diuretics at discharge (P <.001, R(2) = 18%), and with the presence of left-right mismatch (P =.009, R(2) = 9%) and V/Q mismatch (P =.005, R(2) = 11%) on subsequent pulmonary ventilation-perfusion examinations. Sixteen patients required O(2) at discharge, and diuretics were necessary in 43 patients. Seventeen patients at discharge required bronchodilators, and during the first year an additional 36 required at least transient therapy. Similarly, 6 patients at discharge required steroids, and an additional 35 patients required at least transient therapy during the first year. Chest x-rays, although frequently abnormal, had little correlation with clinical outcome, but did influence medical therapy. V/Q scans had limited utility in patient management, and the presence of V/Q mismatch was not highly specific for future obstructive airway disease. Nevertheless, V/Q mismatch was sensitive for obstructive airway disease assessed by spirometry. Twenty-five patients over 5 years of age performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs), which showed 72% normal PFT results and 28% with evidence of obstructive airway disease. Before January 1997, 2 of 8 patients who required urgent treatment in the emergency department (ED) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) secondary to acute respiratory distress. After the implementation of respiratory syncytial viral prophylaxis in January 1997, 8 patients were treated in the ED for acute respiratory distress, but none required admission to the ICU. Pulmonary problems continue to be a source of morbidity for survivors of CDH long after discharge. The need for ECMO and the presence of a patch repair are both predictive of more significant morbidity, but the data clearly show that non-ECMO CDH survivors also require frequent attention to pulmonary issues beyond the neonatal period. These data show the need for long-term follow-up of CDH patients preferably with a multidisciplinary team approach.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rfm
                Revista de la Facultad de Medicina
                RFM
                Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Medicina. Comisión de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Medicina (Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela )
                0798-0469
                June 2008
                : 31
                : 1
                : 7-12
                Affiliations
                [01] Caracas orgnameHospital Universitario de Caracas orgdiv1Sección de Procedimientos Invasivos y Cirugía Fetal Venezuela
                [02] Caracas orgnameHospital Universitario de Caracas orgdiv1Unidad de Perinatología Dr. Freddy Guevara Zuloaga Venezuela
                Article
                S0798-04692008000100002 S0798-0469(08)03100102
                af8bb6a4-e3b7-477c-8b5f-d98bdd27c904

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 01 October 2007
                : 11 February 2008
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 6
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículos de Revisión

                Hernia diafragmática congénita,Diagnóstico prenatal,Hipoplasia pulmonar,Cirugía fetal,Congenital diaphragmatic hernia,Prenatal diagnosis,Lung hypoplasia,Fetal surgery

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