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      International Journal of COPD (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on pathophysiological processes underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) interventions, patient focused education, and self-management protocols. Sign up for email alerts here.

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      Clinical impact of nasal budesonide treatment on COPD patients with coexistent rhinitis


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          A high percentage of patients with COPD report chronic nasal symptoms. The study aims to evaluate the clinical impact of a 2-month treatment with inhaled nasal budesonide (100 µg per nostril twice daily) in patients affected by COPD with chronic rhinitis comorbidity.

          Patients and methods

          Fifty-three stable COPD patients in therapy according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease recommendations were enrolled; 49 completed the study. At enrollment (visit 0), patients underwent skin prick test and rhinoscopy. At visit 0 and after 1 month (visit 1) and 2 months (visit 2) of therapy with nasal budesonide, patients underwent spirometry, and COPD assessment test (CAT), Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT 22), and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale were administered. Differences in continuous variables, after 2 months of treatment with nasal budesonide, were evaluated using a paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test.


          Two months of treatment with nasal budesonide showed a significant statistical improvement in the total scores of CAT, SNOT 22, and modified Medical Research Council ( p<0.001). A significant relationship between CAT and SNOT 22 total scores at baseline and after treatment was observed.


          The results of the present study indicate the importance of careful evaluation of the presence of chronic nasal symptoms in all COPD patients and suggest beneficial clinical effect from treatment with nasal budesonide in terms of COPD symptoms and quality of life.

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          Most cited references35

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          The COPD assessment test (CAT): response to pulmonary rehabilitation. A multicentre, prospective study.

          The COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) assessment test (CAT) is a recently introduced, simple to use patient-completed quality of life instrument that contains eight questions covering the impact of symptoms in COPD. It is not known how the CAT score performs in the context of clinical pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes or what the minimum clinically important difference is. The introduction of the CAT score as an outcome measure was prospectively studied by PR programmes across London. It was used alongside other measures including the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score, the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea score and a range of different walking tests. Patients completed a 5-point anchor question used to assess overall response to PR from 'I feel much better' to 'I feel much worse'. Data were available for 261 patients with COPD participating in seven programmes: mean (SD) age 69.0 (9.0) years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 51.1 (18.7) % predicted, MRC score 3.2 (1.0). Mean change in CAT score after PR was 2.9 (5.6) points, improving by 3.8 (6.1) points in those scoring 'much better' (n=162), and by 1.3(4.5) in those who felt 'a little better' (n=88) (p=0.002). Only eight individuals reported no difference after PR and three reported feeling 'a little worse', so comparison with these smaller groups was not possible. The CAT score is simple to implement as an outcome measure, it improves in response to PR and can distinguish categories of response.
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            Observational study to characterise 24-hour COPD symptoms and their relationship with patient-reported outcomes: results from the ASSESS study

            Background Few studies have investigated the 24-hour symptom profile in patients with COPD or how symptoms during the 24-hour day are inter-related. This observational study assessed the prevalence, severity and relationship between night-time, early morning and daytime COPD symptoms and explored the relationship between 24-hour symptoms and other patient-reported outcomes. Methods The study enrolled patients with stable COPD in clinical practice. Baseline night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms (symptom questionnaire), severity of airflow obstruction (FEV1), dyspnoea (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale), health status (COPD Assessment Test), anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), sleep quality (COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale) and physical activity level (sedentary, moderately active or active) were recorded. Results The full analysis set included 727 patients: 65.8% male, mean ± standard deviation age 67.2 ± 8.8 years, % predicted FEV1 52.8 ± 20.5%. In each part of the 24-hour day, >60% of patients reported experiencing ≥1 symptom in the week before baseline. Symptoms were more common in the early morning and daytime versus night-time (81.4%, 82.7% and 63.0%, respectively). Symptom severity was comparable for each period assessed. Overall, in the week before baseline, 56.7% of patients had symptoms throughout the whole 24-hour day (3 parts of the day); 79.9% had symptoms in ≥2 parts of the 24-hour day. Symptoms during each part of the day were inter-related, irrespective of disease severity (all p < 0.001). Early morning and daytime symptoms were associated with the severity of airflow obstruction (p < 0.05 for both). Night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms were all associated with worse dyspnoea, health status and sleep quality, and higher anxiety and depression levels (all p < 0.001 versus patients without symptoms in each corresponding period). In each part of the 24-hour day, there was also an association between symptoms and a patient’s physical activity level (p < 0.05 for each period). Conclusions More than half of patients experienced COPD symptoms throughout the whole 24-hour day. There was a significant relationship between night-time, early morning and daytime symptoms. In each period, symptoms were associated with worse patient-reported outcomes, suggesting that improving 24-hour symptoms should be an important consideration in the management of COPD. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12931-014-0122-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              The united allergic airway: Connections between allergic rhinitis, asthma, and chronic sinusitis

              Background: The united allergic airway is a theory that connects allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma, in which seemingly disparate diseases, instead of being thought of separately, are instead viewed as arising from a common atopic entity. Objective: This article describes patients with such diseases; explores ideas suggesting a unified pathogenesis; elucidates the various treatment modalities available, emphasizing nasal corticosteroids and antihistamines; and provides an update of the literature. Methods: A literature review was conducted. Conclusion: The aggregation of research suggests that AR, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis are linked by the united allergic airway, a notion that encompasses commonalities in pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                27 June 2018
                : 13
                : 2025-2032
                [1 ]Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Monaldi Hospital, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy, cecilia.calabrese@ 123456unicampania.it
                [2 ]Ear Nose and Throat Unit and Neck Surgery, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy
                [3 ]Medical Statistics Unit, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Monaldi Hospital, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy
                [5 ]Bronchoscopic Unit, Public Hospital, Eboli, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cecilia Calabrese, Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Monaldi Hospital, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, via Leonardo Bianchi, 80131 Naples, Italy, Email cecilia.calabrese@ 123456unicampania.it
                © 2018 Calabrese et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine
                copd,rhinitis,cat,snot 22,mmrc,budesonide
                Respiratory medicine
                copd, rhinitis, cat, snot 22, mmrc, budesonide


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