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      Acacetin Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Modulation of ROS/JNK Activation

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          The long-term survival rate of osteosarcoma, which is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor, has stagnated in past decades. Acacetin is a natural flavonoid compound that has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and exhibits extensive therapeutic effects on various cancers. In this study, the anticancer potential of acacetin and the underlying molecular mechanisms were examined in human osteosarcoma cells (SJSA and HOS).

          Materials and Methods

          HOS and SJSA cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of acacetin. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by CCK-8 and colony-formation assays. Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining was employed to detect apoptosis. Cell apoptosis was measured by an annexin V-FITC/PI assay by flow cytometry. The alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by a JC-1 Assay Kit. Apoptosis-related protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Subsequently, the activation of the ROS/JNK signaling pathway was investigated.


          Acacetin could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in SJSA and HOS cells. The acacetin treatment resulted in the activation of caspase-3, −8, and −9 and cleaved PARP. Further studies showed that acacetin-induced apoptosis was attributed to ROS. In addition, we found that acacetin induced the activation of the downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Subsequently, after treatment with the ROS scavenger GSH and the JNK inhibitor SP600125, the apoptosis-inducing effect triggered by acacetin was significantly attenuated.


          The results of the present study indicate that acacetin may induce apoptosis to inhibit cell growth by activating the ROS/JNK signaling pathway in SJSA and HOS cells, suggesting that acacetin may be a promising candidate for the management of osteosarcomas.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Cell death: critical control points.

          Programmed cell death is a distinct genetic and biochemical pathway essential to metazoans. An intact death pathway is required for successful embryonic development and the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis has proven to be tightly interwoven with other essential cell pathways. The identification of critical control points in the cell death pathway has yielded fundamental insights for basic biology, as well as provided rational targets for new therapeutics.
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            An APAF-1.cytochrome c multimeric complex is a functional apoptosome that activates procaspase-9.

            We report here the reconstitution of the de novo procaspase-9 activation pathway using highly purified cytochrome c, recombinant APAF-1, and recombinant procaspase-9. APAF-1 binds and hydrolyzes ATP or dATP to ADP or dADP, respectively. The hydrolysis of ATP/dATP and the binding of cytochrome c promote APAF-1 oligomerization, forming a large multimeric APAF-1.cytochrome c complex. Such a complex can be isolated using gel filtration chromatography and is by itself sufficient to recruit and activate procaspase-9. The stoichiometric ratio of procaspase-9 to APAF-1 is approximately 1 to 1 in the complex. Once activated, caspase-9 disassociates from the complex and becomes available to cleave and activate downstream caspases such as caspase-3.
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              Control of apoptosis by the BCL-2 protein family: implications for physiology and therapy.

              The BCL-2 protein family determines the commitment of cells to apoptosis, an ancient cell suicide programme that is essential for development, tissue homeostasis and immunity. Too little apoptosis can promote cancer and autoimmune diseases; too much apoptosis can augment ischaemic conditions and drive neurodegeneration. We discuss the biochemical, structural and genetic studies that have clarified how the interplay between members of the BCL-2 family on mitochondria sets the apoptotic threshold. These mechanistic insights into the functions of the BCL-2 family are illuminating the physiological control of apoptosis, the pathological consequences of its dysregulation and the promising search for novel cancer therapies that target the BCL-2 family.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                18 November 2020
                : 14
                : 5077-5085
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Xiang’an Hospital of Xiamen University , Xiamen City, Fujian, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guangrong Ji Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Xiang’an Hospital of Xiamen University , No. 2000, Xiang’an East Road, Xiang’an District, Xiamen City, Fujian Province361000, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13945107257Fax + 0954-2683908 Email 15755188821@163.com
                © 2020 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 37, Pages: 9
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                acacetin, osteosarcoma, apoptosis, ros/jnk activation


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